0
Research Papers: Pipeline Systems

A Phenomenological Model for Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of X70 Pipeline Steel in H2S Corrosive Environment

[+] Author and Article Information
Jing Wang

Lecturer
College of Mechanical Engineering
& Applied Electronics Technology,
Beijing University of Technology,
Beijing 100124, China
e-mail: wjing@bjut.edu.cn

Xiao-yang Li

College of Mechanical Engineering
& Applied Electronics Technology,
Beijing University of Technology,
Beijing 100124, China
e-mail: lixy@bjut.edu.cn

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 19, 2012; final manuscript received February 8, 2014; published online April 28, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Roman Motriuk.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(4), 041703 (Apr 28, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1196; doi: 10.1115/1.4026821 History: Received December 19, 2012; Revised February 08, 2014

Long distance pipeline transmission is considered to be the most economic and safest method to transport natural gas in recent days. The pipeline safety problem is a focus of concern in the academic and industrial circles. Wildly used material X70 pipeline steel is tested in this paper. Based on actual conditions of long distance pipeline, experiments were designed by using orthogonal method. Corrosion fatigue crack growth tests were carried out under different H2S concentrations (2000 ppm, 1000 ppm, 500 ppm), stress ratios (0.9, 0.8, 0.7), and load frequencies (0.0067 Hz, 0.01 Hz, 0.013 Hz). A phenomenological model was built based on test data and Paris formula, which corrects parameters C and n of the Paris formula at the same time. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to simulate the process of corrosion fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) under different loading conditions were obtained and all the parameters of the phenomenological model were calculated from test data. Compared with traditional Paris formula, this new model shows coupling interactions of stress ratio, load frequency, and H2S concentration to both slope and intercept of FCGR curve in log-log space. The simulation results show that the largest difference between actual test data and BEM simulation is less than 10%. According to the analysis of coupling interactions of each factor, the slope of fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) curve in log-log space is mainly influenced by frequency; the influence of H2S concentration is nonlinear, and FCGR increases significantly with the increase of stress ratio and decrease of frequency. The BEM is suitable to be used in the engineering field to predict the residual life of pipelines.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Lima, K. R., Bott, I., and Gomes, J. A., 2005, “Laboratory Investigation of Environmentally Induced Cracking of API-X70 and X80 Pipeline Steels,” Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Halkidiki, Greece, June 12–17, ASME Paper No. OMAE2005-67560, pp. 307–311. [CrossRef]
Koh, S. U., Yang, B. Y., and Kim, K. Y., 2004, “Effect of Alloying Elements on the Susceptibility to Sulfide Stress Cracking of Line Pipe Steels,” Corrosion, 60(3), pp. 262–274. [CrossRef]
Li, M. X., Wang, R., Li, P. L., and Lu, M. X., 2004, “Crack Propagation Quantitative Models of X70 Pipeline Steel in the Synthetic Soil Solution,” J. Chin. Soc. Corrosion Protection, 24(3), pp. 163–166. [CrossRef]
Eadie, R. L., and Szklarz, K. E., 2005, “Corrosion Fatigue and Near-Neutral pH Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steel and the Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide,” Corrosion, 61(2), pp. 167–173. [CrossRef]
Wang, R., 2004, “Crack Propagation Characteristics of X70 Pipeline Steel Under Fluctuation Loading,” Mater. Mech. Eng., 28(6), pp. 10–13, 16. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J. P., Zhou, C. Y., Yu, X. C., Huang, W. L., Wu, B. J., and Li, Q., 1999, “Effect of Stress Ratio and Loading Frequency on Crack Growth Rate of Corrosion Fatigue,” Pressure Vessel, 16(6), pp. 1–4,57.
Atkinson, J. D., Yu, J., Chen, Z. Y., and Zhao, Z. J., 1998, “Modeling of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Plateaux for RPV Steels in High Temperature Water,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 184, pp. 13–25. [CrossRef]
Jiang, J. H., Fan, W. X., and Huang, W. Y., 1995, “The Mathematical Model da/dN ∼ (ΔK, f) of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth,” Acta Aeronaut. Astronaut. Sinca, 16(2), pp. 188–192. [CrossRef]
NACE TM0177-96, 1996, Laboratory Testing of Metals for Resistance to Specific Forms of Environmental Cracking in H2S Environments, National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Houston, TX.
Martyn, J. W., and Robert, L. S., 1998, “The Role of Pressure and Pressure Fluctuations in the Growth of Stress Corrosion Cracks in Line Pipe Steels,” Proceedings of the International Pipeline Conference, Vol. 1, pp. 409–422.
Zhao, X. W., Han, X. Y., Luo, J. H., Li, H. L., and Yang, L., 2005, “Fatigue Reliability Life Estimation of Welded Steel Pipe for West-East Gas Pipeline,” China Petroleum Machinery, 33(3), pp. 10–13, 27. [CrossRef]
Chinese National Standard GB6398-2002, 2002, The Test Method of Metal Fatigue Crack Growth Rate, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China.
Jiang, Z. G., 1992, Corrosion Fatigue of Aircraft Structures, Aviation Industry Press, Beijing, China.
Chen, J., and Zhao, S. S., 2006, Fracture Mechanics, Science Press, Beijing, China. [PubMed] [PubMed]
Chen, G. S., Wan, K. C., Gao, M., We, i. R. P., and Flournoy, T. H., 1996, “Transition From Pitting to Fatigue Crack Growth Modeling of-Corrosion Fatigue Crack Nucleation in a 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy,” Materials Sci. Eng. A, 129, pp. 126–132. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. L., Miao, W., and Wang, J., 2007, “Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of 4130X Steel in Different H2S Environments,” Ninth International Conference on Engineering Structural Integrity Assessment, Engineering Structural Integrity: Research, Development and Application, Vol. 2, pp. 820–823.
Williams, B. W., Lambert, S. B., and Plumtree, A., 2004, “Environmental Crack Growth Under Variable Amplitude Loading of Pipeline Steel,” Corrosion, 60(1), pp. 95–103. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Microstructure of X70 steel (acicular ferrite)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Modified WOL specimen (mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of corrosion fatigue test device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Corrosion fatigue test device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Test data of corrosion fatigue crack growth rate experiments in H2S solution. (a) FCGR test data in H2S solution (2000 ppm), (b) FCGR test data in H2S solution (1000 ppm), (c) FCGR test data in H2S solution (500 ppm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

da/dN-ΔK curves of all specimens in log-log space

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation between correction factor B and each factor. (a) Variation between correction factor B and frequency, (b) variation between correction factor B and H2S concentration, (c) variation between correction factor B and stress ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of correction factor A. (a) Variation of correction factor A with different H2S concentrations, (b) variation of correction factor A with different stress ratios, (c) variation of correction factor A with different frequencies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of correction factor B. (a) Variation of correction factor B with different H2S concentrations, (b) variation of correction factor B with different stress ratios, (c) variation of correction factor B with different frequencies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Influence of H2S concentration on FCGRs, (a) FCGR surfaces with different H2S concentrations, (b) fracture surface of point A (2000 ppm, R = 0.9, f = 0.0067 Hz), (c) fracture surface of point B (500 ppm, R = 0.9, f = 0.01 Hz)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Influence of stress ratio on FCGRs. (a) FCGR surfaces with different stress ratios. (b) Fracture surface of point A (1000 ppm, R = 0.9, f = 0.013 Hz). (c) Fracture surface of point B (1000 ppm, R = 0.7, f = 0.01 Hz).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Influence of frequency on FCGRs. (a) FCGR surfaces with different frequencies. (b) Fracture surface of point A (f = 0.0067 Hz, R = 0.8, 1000 ppm). (c) Fracture surface of point B (f = 0.013 Hz, R = 0.9, 1000 ppm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig.13

Mash result of CT specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison between a-N curves obtained from BEM and test data (air environment)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison between a-N curves obtained from BEM and test data (2000 ppm, R = 0.8, f = 0.01 Hz)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In