0
Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Experimental Investigation of Friction Stir Seal Welding of Tube–Tubesheet Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Fadi A. Al-Badour

Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: fbadour@kfupm.edu.sa

Nesar Merah, Abdelrahman Shuaib, Abdelaziz Bazoune

Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 27, 2013; final manuscript received June 1, 2014; published online September 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: David L. Rudland.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 137(1), 011402 (Sep 15, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-13-1147; doi: 10.1115/1.4027807 History: Received August 27, 2013; Revised June 01, 2014

To ensure heat exchanger tube–tubesheet joints tightness, industrial standards may recommend performing a combination of roller expansion and seal welding, using conventional fusion welding processes. Solid state friction stir welding (FSW) has several advantages over the conventional fusion welding but has not yet proven its usefulness in seal and strength welding of heat exchanger tube–tubesheet joints where the available space is very limited and weld pass is of a relatively complex contour. In this work, a newly designed tool and procedure have been developed to friction stir seal weld tube–tubesheet joints. The effects of process conditions such as welding speed and tool offset on dependent process parameters including welding loads and joint quality have been investigated on a 6xxx-series aluminum three-tube test cell. The results of the investigation revealed that the quality of the seal weld of tube–tubesheet joints is affected by the above parameters. Lower weld speeds increase the size of the heat-affected zone while higher speeds lead to larger weld defects. Better weld quality is obtained when the center of the pin tool is offset from the tube–tubesheet interface by an amount lower than 40% of the pin diameter.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Welding , Friction , Stress
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Otegui, J. L., and Fazzini, P. G., 2004, “Failure Analysis of Tube–Tubesheet Welds in Cracked Gas Heat Exchangers,” Eng. Failure Anal., 11(6), pp. 903–913. [CrossRef]
Albiruni, F., and Hamdani, W., 2006, “Failure of Dissimilar-Metal Weld-Joint at the Tube-to-Tubesheet due to High-Temperature Hydrogen Attack,” J. Indones. Oil Gas Community, 2, pp. 1–6.
Guo, C., Han, C. J., Tang, Y. M., Zuo, Y., and Lin, S. Z., 2001, “Failure Analysis of Welded 0Cr 13Al Tube Bundle in a Heat Exchanger,” Eng. Failure Anal., 18(3), pp. 890–894. [CrossRef]
Wayne, T., Edward, N., and James, N., 1994, European Patent No. Ep 0615480 B1.
Murr, L. E., 2010, “A Review of FSW Research on Dissimilar Metal and Alloy Systems,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 19(8), pp. 1071–1089. [CrossRef]
Ericsson, M., and Sandstrom, R., 2003, “Influence of Welding Speed on the Fatigue of Friction Stir Welds, and Comparison With MIG and TIG,” Int. J. Fatigue, 25(12), pp. 1379–1387. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Jiang, F., Jian, H., Wen, K., Jiang, L., and Chen, X., 2010, “Comparative Investigation of Tungsten Inert Gas and Friction Stir Welding Characteristics of Al–Mg–Sc Alloy Plates,” Mater. Des., 31(1), pp. 306–311. [CrossRef]
Badarinarayan, H., Hunt, F., and Okamoto, K., 2007, “Friction Stir Spot Welding,” Friction Stir Welding and Processing, 1st ed., S. R. Mishra, and W. M. Mahoney, eds., ASM International, OH, pp. 235–272.
Al-Badour, F., Merah, N., Shuaib, A. N., and Bazoune, A., 2012, “Experimental and Finite Element Modeling of Friction Stir Seal Welding of Tube-Tubesheet Joint,” Adv. Mater. Res., 445, pp. 771–776 [CrossRef]
Shuaib, A., Merah, N., and Bazoune, A., 2012, “Friction Stir Welding of Tube-Tubesheet Joints,” NSTIP Project No. 08-Adv66-04, KFUPM-Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code VIII: An International Code, 2004 Edition, July 2004.
Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, TEMA, 9th ed., 2007.
“Welding of Aluminum Alloy Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints by Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Process,” Cases of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1, Case 2677, Approval Date: April 6, 2011.
Watanabe, T., Takayam, H., and Yanagisaw, A., 2006, “Joining of Aluminum Alloy to Steel by Friction Stir Welding,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 178(1–3), pp. 342–349. [CrossRef]
Takeshita, R. P., Brown, R. J., Eller, M. R., and Pham, D. N., 2011, “Friction-Stir Weld-Tool and Method,” U.S. Patent No. 2011000952A1.
James, M. N., Hattingh, D. G., and Bradley, G. R., 2003, “Weld Tool Travel Speed Effects on Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Welds in 5083 Aluminum,” Int. J. Fatigue, 25(12), pp. 1389–1398. [CrossRef]
Dickerson, T. L., and Przydatek, J., 2003, “Fatigue of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminium Alloys That Contain Root Flaws,” Int. J. Fatigue, 25(12), pp. 1399–1409. [CrossRef]
Chowdhury, S. M., Chen, D. L., Bhole, S. D., and Cao, X., 2010, “Tensile Properties of a Friction Stir Welded Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Pin Tool Thread Orientation and Weld Pitch,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 527(21–22), pp. 6064–6075. [CrossRef]
Zhou, C., Yang, X., and Luan, G., 2006, “Effect of Root Flaws on the Fatigue Property of Friction Stir Welds in 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 418(1–2), pp. 155–160. [CrossRef]
Cavaliere, P., De Santis, A., Panella, F., and Squillace, A., 2009, “Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of AA 6082 Joints Produced by Friction Stir Welding,” Mater. Des., 30(3), pp. 609–616. [CrossRef]
Vidal, C., Infante, V., and Vilaça, P., 2010, “Assessment of Improvement Techniques Effect on Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Welded Aerospace Aluminum Alloys,” Procedia Eng., 2(1), pp. 1605–1616. [CrossRef]
Firouzdor, V., and Kou, S., 2009, “Al-to-Mg Friction Stir Welding: Effect of Positions of Al and Mg With Respect to the Welding Tool,” Weld. J., 88, pp. 213–224.
Xue, P., Ni, D. R., Wang, D., Xiao, B. L., and Ma, Z. Y., 2011, “Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Dissimilar Al–Cu Joints,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 528(13–14), pp. 4683–4689. [CrossRef]
Chen, C. M., and Kovacevic, R., 2004, “Joining of Al 6061 Alloy to AISI 1018 Steel by Combined Effects of Fusion and Solid State Welding,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 44(11), pp. 1205–1214. [CrossRef]
Cavaliere, P., and Panella, F., 2008, “Effect of Tool Position on the Fatigue Properties of Dissimilar 2024-7075 Sheets Joined by Friction Stir Welding,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 206(1–3), pp. 249–255. [CrossRef]
Karimi, N., Nourouzi, S., Shakeri, M., Habibnia, M., and Dehghani, A., 2012, “Effect of Tool Material and Offset on Friction Stir Welding of Al Alloy to Carbon Steel,” Adv. Mater. Res., 445, pp. 747–752. [CrossRef]
Kumar, K., and Kailas, S. V., 2008, “On the Role of Axial Load and the Effect of Interface Position on the Tensile Strength of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy,” Mater. Des., 29(4), pp. 791–797. [CrossRef]
James, M. N., Hattingh, D. G., and Bradley, G. R., 2003, “Weld Tool Travel Speed Effects on Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Welds in 5083 Aluminum,” Int. J. Fatigue, 25, pp. 1389–1398. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Tube–tubesheet cell geometry and dimensions (dimensions are in mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Photograph of FSW tool by MTI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Tube–tubesheet friction stir seal and strength welding setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of tube plug (a) without tube plug and (b) with tube plug, using same welding conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Weld macrostructure at tool offset (a) designed 25%, (b) 35%, (c) 40%, and (d) 45% of pin diameter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Measured temperature during FSSW using N = 1500 rpm and V = 175 mm/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Tube–tubesheet seal welds performed at (a) 125 mm/min, (b) 150 mm/min, (c) 175 mm/min, (d) 200 mm/min, (e) after flash removal by machining, and (f) unwelded joint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Microstructure of produced joints, section A, presenting the defect formed at different welding speeds (a) V = 125, (b) V = 150, (c) V = 175, and (d) V = 200 mm/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Vickers microhardness across section A–A

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In