Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Simulation and Measurement of Through–Wall Residual Stresses in a Structural Weld Overlaid Pressurizer Nozzle

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephen Marlette

Westinghouse Electric Company LLC,
Pittsburgh, PA 16066

Paula Freyer

Westinghouse Electric Company LLC,
Pittsburgh, PA 15235

Michael Smith

British Energy,
Gloucester, GL4 3RS, UK

Andrew Goodfellow

British Energy,
Gloucester, GL4 3RS, UK

Xavier Pitoiset

Westinghouse Electric Belgium SA,
Nivelles 1400, Belgium

Bradley Voigt

WEC Welding & Machining LLC,
Lake Bluff, IL 60044

Rick Rishel

WesDyne International,
Madison, PA 15663

Ed Kingston

Bristol, BS8 1QU, UK

Mockup fabrication was led by Bradley Voigt.

Additional inspections were performed (i.e., on the Alloy 182 buttering, etc.) but are not discussed in this paper.

The UT examinations were led by Rick Rishel.

The residual stress measurements were led by Ed Kingston.

Finite element analyses were also performed through this same position, i.e., through the DM weld centerline.

The FEA analysis was led by Stephen Marlette.

ansys is a trademark of ANSYS Inc. and is used here to refer to the publically available multi-use finite element program.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Manuscript received April 5, 2011; final manuscript received December 6, 2012; published online June 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Xian-Kui Zhu.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(5), 051401 (Jun 24, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-11-1094; doi: 10.1115/1.4024657 History: Received April 05, 2011; Revised December 06, 2012

Full structural weld overlays (FSWOLs) have been used extensively as a repair/mitigation technique for primary water stress corrosion cracking in pressurizer nozzle dissimilar metal (DM) welds. To support an approved FSWOL design and safety submission for British Energy pressurized water reactor (PWR) nozzles, an in-depth evaluation was performed to assess the effects of a FSWOL on the through wall residual stress distribution in safety/relief pressurizer nozzles. Two safety/relief pressurizer nozzle mockups were fabricated based on British Energy’s PWR nozzle design. One mockup included the nozzle to safe-end DM weld and the safe-end to stainless steel weld, while the second mockup included the DM weld, the stainless steel weld, and a Westinghouse designed structural weld overlay. The mockups were fabricated utilizing materials and techniques that represented the plant specific nozzles as closely as possible and detailed welding parameters were recorded during fabrication. All welds were subsequently nondestructively evaluated (NDE). A thorough review of the detailed fabrication records and the NDE results was performed and several circumferential positions were selected on each mockup for subsequent residual stress measurement. The through wall residual stress profiles were experimentally measured through the DM weld centerline at the selected circumferential positions using both the deep-hole drilling (DHD) and incremental deep-hole drilling (iDHD) measurement techniques. In addition to experimental residual stress measurements, the through-wall residual stress profiles were simulated using a 2D axisymmetric ansys finite element (FE) model. The model utilized the application of temperature constraints on the weld elements to simulate the thermal welding cycle which greatly simplified the simulation as compared with detailed heat source modeling methods. Kinematic strain hardening was used for material modeling of the weld and base metals. A range of residual weld stress profiles was calculated by varying the time at which the temperature constraints were applied to the model. The simulation results were compared with the measurement results. It was found that the effects of the FSWOL were principally threefold. Specifically, the FSWOL causes a much deeper compressive stress field, i.e., the overlay shifts tension out toward the outside diameter (OD) surface. Furthermore, the FSWOL reduces tension in the underlying dissimilar metal weld, and finally, the FSWOL causes higher peak compressive and tensile residual stresses, both of which move deeper into the nozzle wall after the overlay is applied. Relatively good agreement was observed between the FE results and the measurements results.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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Fig. 2

ansys™ model and stress path

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Fig. 1

Mockups A and B fabricated by WW&M

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Fig. 3

Simulation results for mockups A and B

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Fig. 4

Mockup A residual stress measurement results

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Fig. 5

Mockup B residual stress measurement results

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Fig. 6

Mockups A and B residual stress measurement results

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Fig. 7

Effects of FSWOL on location for peak compression and compression to tension transition

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Fig. 8

Mockup A modeled versus measured results

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Fig. 9

Mockup B modeled versus measured results




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