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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

The Bauschinger Effect's Influence on the Stress Intensity Factors of a Semi-Elliptical Crack Emanating From an Erosion at the Bore of a Fully Autofrettaged Pressurized Cylinder

[+] Author and Article Information
Q. Ma

Mem. ASME
Edward F. Cross School of Engineering,
Walla Walla University,
College Place, WA 99324
e-mail: qin.ma@wallawalla.edu

C. Levy

ASME Fellow
Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
Florida International University,
Miami, FL 33199
e-mail: levyez@fiu.edu

M. Perl

ASME Fellow
Pearlstone Center
for Aeronautical Engineering Studies,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Ben Gurion University of the Negev,
Beer Sheva 84105, Israel
e-mail: merpr01@bgu.ac.il

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 2, 2014; final manuscript received November 3, 2014; published online February 20, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Wolf Reinhardt.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 137(4), 041403 (Aug 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-14-1015; doi: 10.1115/1.4029018 History: Received February 02, 2014; Revised November 03, 2014; Online February 20, 2015

The benefits of autofrettage for thick-walled cylindrical vessels as a means of improving the vessel's durability and sustainability have been addressed in the published literature. However, the presence of the Bauschinger effect (BE) complicates the overall effect of autofrettage, especially when complex three-dimensional crack geometries emanating from erosions at the cylinder bore are considered. In this paper, the BE's impact on the stress intensity factors (SIFs) on such cracks is investigated. The effect of various erosion geometrical configurations on the mode I SIF distribution along the front of a semi-elliptical crack, emanating from the deepest line of the erosion surface (DLES) at the bore of an autofrettaged, pressurized thick-walled cylinder of outer-to-inner radius ratio, Ro/Ri = 2, is investigated. Both autofrettage with BE (BEDA) and Hill's ideal autofrettage residual stress field (BEIA) are considered and simulated by an equivalent thermal load. The SIFs are determined for the semi-elliptical cracks of various crack depths to wall thickness ratio, a/t = 0.05–0.25, and ellipticities, a/c, ranging from 0.5 to 1.5, emanating from the DLES via Ansys software and the nodal displacement method. Three groups of erosion geometries are considered: (a) arc erosions of constant relative depth, d/t, equal to 5% and with relative radii of curvature, r′/t, between 5% and 30%; (b) semi-elliptic erosions of constant relative depth, d/t, of 5% with erosion ellipticity, d/h, varying from 0.3 to 2.0; and (c) semicircular erosions of relative depth, d/t, between 1% and 10% of the wall thickness. KIP, the SIF due to pressurization, is highly dependent on the stress concentration ahead of the DLES which directly relates to the erosion geometry. It is found that the absolute value of KIA, the SIF due to autofrettage, is just slightly reduced by the presence of the erosion. Its change solely depends on, and is directly proportional to, the erosion depth. Thus, the combined SIFs of deep cracks are found to be significantly enhanced by the presence of autofrettage and might result in a shortening of the vessel's fatigue life by up to an order of magnitude. Counteracting this, the combined SIFs are found to be significantly higher for BEDA cases than for BEIA cases. Therefore, the vessel's fatigue life can be profoundly influenced by the presence of the BE.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Model of the eroded cylinder with a crack emanating from the erosion DLES; (a) The model of the eroded cracked cylinder with symmetrical planes at Z = 0, θ = 0 deg, and θ = 90 deg. (b) The definition of the angle ϕ. Erosion configurations defined: (c) semicircular, (d) arc, and (e) elliptic erosions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The finite element model: (a) a typical global mesh; (b) a typical mesh at the vicinity of the crack front; (c) the submodel showing the toroidlike finite element mesh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The effect of erosion curvature of a constant relative depth (d/t = 0.05) on the normalized effective SIF for a semicircular crack of relative depth a/t = 0.05

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The effect of erosion curvature of a constant relative depth (d/t = 0.05) on the normalized Kmax for short cracks of relative depth a/t = 0.01with various crack ellipticities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The effect of erosion curvature of a constant relative depth (d/t = 0.05) on the normalized Kmax for deeper cracks of relative depth a/t = 0. 15 with various crack ellipticities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The effect of erosion ellipticity of a constant relative depth (d/t = 0.05) on the normalized effective SIF for a semicircular crack of relative depth a/t = 0.05

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The effect of erosion ellipticity of a constant relative depth (d/t = 0.05) on the normalized Kmax for cracks of relative depth a/t = 0.05 with different crack ellipticities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The effect of erosion ellipticity of a constant relative depth (d/t = 0.05) on the normalized Kmax for cracks of relative depth a/t = 0.10 with different crack ellipticities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The effect of erosion depth on the normalized effective SIF for a semicircular crack of relative depth a/t = 0.05

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The effect of erosion depth of a semicircular erosion of relative depth a/t = 0.05 on the normalized Kmax

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