0
Research Papers: Experimental Work

Low-Cycle Fatigue and Ratcheting Responses of Elbow Piping Components

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Hassan

Department of Civil, Construction,
and Environmental Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695-7908
e-mail: thassan@ncsu.edu

M. Rahman, S. Bari

Department of Civil, Construction,
and Environmental Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695-7908

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Areva Inc., Charlotte, NC 28262.

3Present address: DTE Energy, Detroit, MI 48226.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 28, 2014; final manuscript received November 8, 2014; published online March 25, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Reza Adibi-Asl.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 137(3), 031010 (Jun 01, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: PVT-14-1074; doi: 10.1115/1.4029068 History: Received April 28, 2014; Revised November 08, 2014; Online March 25, 2015

The objective of this study was to investigate low-cycle fatigue and ratcheting responses of elbows through experimental and analytical studies. Low-cycle fatigue and ratcheting damage accumulation in piping components may occur under repeated reversals of loading induced by earthquake and/or thermomechanical operation. Ratcheting and fatigue damage accumulation can cause failure of piping systems through fatigue cracks or plastic buckling. However, the ratcheting damage induced failures are yet to be understood clearly; consequently, ASME Code design provisions against ratcheting failure continue to be a controversial issue over the last two decades. A systematic set of piping component experimental responses involving ratcheting and a computational tool to simulate these responses will be essential to rationally address the issue. Development of a constitutive model for simulating component ratcheting responses remains to be a challenging problem. In order to develop an experimentally validated constitutive model, a set of elbow experiments was conducted. The loading prescribed in the experiments involved displacement-controlled or force-controlled in-plane cyclic bending with or without internal pressure. Force, displacement, internal pressure, elbow diameter change, and strains at four locations of the elbow specimens were recorded. This article presents and discusses the results from the experimental study. A sister article evaluates seven different constitutive models against simulating these elbow ratcheting and fatigue responses.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

EPRI, 1992, “Piping and Fitting Dynamic Reliability Program,” Vol. 2—Component Test Report, EPRI Contract No. RP 1543-15.
EPRI, 1994, “EPRI Fatigue Management Handbook,” Vol. 2—Fatigue Screening Criteria, EPRI Contract No. TR-104534-V2.
Miller, P. R., 1959, “Thermal Stress Ratchet Mechanism in Pressure Vessels,” ASME J. Basic Eng., 81(Series D), pp. 190–196.
Parkes, E. W., 1964, “Structural Effects of Repeated Thermal Loading,” Thermal Stress, P. P.Benham, and R.Hoyle, eds., Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd., London, UK.
Edmunds, H. G., and Beer, F. J., 1961, “Notes on Incremental Collapse in Pressure Vessels,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 3(3), pp. 187–199. [CrossRef]
Bree, J., 1967, “Elastic Plastic Behavior of Thin Tubes Subjected to Internal Pressure and Intermittent High Heat Fluxes,” J. Strain Anal., 2(3), pp. 226–238. [CrossRef]
Bree, J., 1968, “Incremental Growth due to Creep and Plastic Yielding of Thin Tubes Subjected to Internal Pressure and Cyclic Thermal Stresses,” J. Strain Anal., 3(2), pp. 122–177. [CrossRef]
Dunne, F. P. E., Puttergill, D. B., HayHurst, D. R., and Mabbutt, Q. J., 1993, “Experimental Investigation of Cyclic Plasticity Continuum Damage Evolution in an Engineering Component Subjected to Thermal Loading,” J. Strain Anal., 28(4), pp. 78–86. [CrossRef]
Ponter, A. R. S., and Carter, K. F., 1989, “Upper Bound Methods for Use in the Design and Assessment of Axisymmetric Thin Shells Subjected to Cyclic Thermal Loading,” Nucl. Eng. Des.116(3), pp. 239–254. [CrossRef]
Maier, G., Pan, L. G., and Perego, U., 1993, “Geometric Effects on Shakedown and Ratchetting of Axisymmetric Cylindrical Shells Subjected to Variable Thermal Loading,” Eng. Struct., 15(6), pp. 453–465. [CrossRef]
Jahanian, S., 1997, “On the Incremental Growth of Mechanical Structures Subjected to Cyclic Thermal and Mechanical Loading,” Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 71(2), pp. 121–127. [CrossRef]
Tagart, S. W., 1972, “Plastic Fatigue Analysis of Pressure Component,” Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis; A Decade of Progress, Vol. 1—Analysis, G. J.Bohm, R. L.Cloud, L. C.Hsu, D. H.Pai, and R. F.Reddy, eds., ASME, New York.
Griffith, W. I., and Rodabaugh, E. C., 1975, “Tests at Room Temperature and 1100 F on a 4” Sch. 10 Elbow-Pipe Assembly Subjected to In-Plane Moment Loading,” 2nd National Congress on Pressure Vessels and Piping, San Francisco, CA, June 23–27, pp. 1–37. Available at: http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4227063/
Greenstreet, W. L., 1978, “Experimental Study of Plastic Responses of Pipe Elbows,” Report No. ORNL/NUREG-24.
Tagart, S. W., Tang, Y. K., Hwang, H. L., Merz, K. L., Guzy, D. J., and DeVito, V., 1988, “Seismic Analysis and Testing of Piping Systems and Components,” ASME PVP, 144, pp. 229–236.
Suzuki, N., and Nasu, M., 1989, “Non-Linear Analysis of Welded Elbows Subjected to In-Plane Bending,” Comput. Struct., 32(3/4), pp. 871–881. [CrossRef]
Acker, D., Touboul, F., and Autrusson, B., 1992, “Experimental Analysis of Ratcheting in Elbows,” ASME PVP, 235, pp. 87–91.
ASME, 1992, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB-3600 Piping Design, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Carmichael, G. D. T., 1990, “The CEGB Aseismic Piping Research Programme,” ASME PVP, pp. 183–193.
Beaney, E. M., 1990, “Failure of Pipework Subjected to Seismic Loading,” Nuclear Electric PLC Technology Division Report, Report No. TD/B/6315/R90.
Beaney, E. M., 1991, “Failure of Elbows Under Seismic Loading,” Nuclear Electric Report, Report No. TD/SID/REP/0134.
Yahiaoui, K., Moffat, D. G., and Moreton, D. N., 1996, “Response and Cyclic Strain Accumulation of Pressurized Piping Elbows Under Dynamic In-Plane Bending,” J. Strain Anal., 31(2), pp. 135–151. [CrossRef]
Yahiaoui, K., Moffat, D. G., and Moreton, D. N., 1996, “Response and Cyclic Strain Accumulation of Pressurized Piping Elbows Under Dynamic Out-of-Plane Bending,” J. Strain Anal., 31(2), pp. 153–166. [CrossRef]
Moreton, D. N., Yahiaoui, K., and Moffat, D. G., 1996, “Onset of Ratcheting in Pressurized Piping Elbows Subjected to In-Plane Bending Moments,” Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 68(1), pp. 73–79. [CrossRef]
Kobayashi, H., Yokoi, R., and Fujiwaka, T., 1995, “Experimental Studies of Ratcheting of Pressurized Elbows,” ASME PVP, 301, pp. 89–94.
Touboul, F., 1995, “Piping Seismic Design Criterion: Ratcheting-Fatigue Behavior Under Cyclic Loadings,” Transactions of the 13th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT 13), Porto Alegre, Brazil, Aug. 13–18, pp. 149–154.
Touboul, F., Sollogoub, P., and Blay, N., 1998, “Simplified Methods for the Evaluation of the Seismic Behavior of Piping System for Criteria Application,” ASME PVP, 364, pp. 117–127.
Tagart, S. W., Tang, Y. K., Guzy, D. J., and Ranganath, S., 1990, “Piping Dynamic Reliability and Code Rule Change Recommendations,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 123(2–3), pp. 373–385. [CrossRef]
Garud, Y. S., Durlofsky, H., and Tagart, S. W., 1993, “Analysis and Prediction of Ratcheting-Fatigue: Comparison With Tests and Code Rules,” ASME PVP, 266, pp. 23–32.
Boussaa, D., Dang Van, K., Labbe, P., and Tang, H. T., 1994, “Fatigue-Seismic Ratcheting Interactions in Pressurized Elbows,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 116(4), pp. 396–402. [CrossRef]
Hwang, H. L., and Ranganath, S., 1995, “Pipe and Elbow Ratcheting Strain Effects on Predicted Fatigue Failure,” ASME PVP, 312, pp. 13–26.
Chen, W. P., Jaquay, K. R., Chokshi, N. C., and Terao, D., 1995, “An Assessment of Seismic Margins in Nuclear Plant Piping,” Proceedings of the 13th SMiRT, Vol. III, Porto Alegre, Brazil, Aug. 13–18, pp. 507–512.
Zhao, Y., Wilson, P. R., Stevenson, J. D., Tang, H. T., and Gasparini, D. A., 1995, “Ratcheting in Cyclic Plasticity of a Pipe Elbow Loaded by Prescribed Multiaxial Stochastic Displacement Time Series,” ASME PVP, 312, pp. 1–12.
ASME, 1995, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB-3600 Piping Design, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Slagis, G. C., 1995, “Experimental Data on Seismic Response of Piping, Seismic Engineering,” ASME PVP, 312, pp. 27–40.
Slagis, G. C., 1996, “Experimental Data on Seismic Response of Piping, Part 2,” ASME 8th International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 2, Montreal, Canada, July 21–26, pp. 481–487.
Slagis, G. C., 1997, “Experimental Data on Seismic Response of Piping, Part 3, Seismic Engineering,” ASME PVP, 345, pp. 163–171.
Slagis, G. C., 1998, “Experimental Data on Seismic Response of Piping, Part 4, Seismic Engineering,” ASME PVP, 364, pp. 141–148.
Jaquay, K., 1998, “Results and Findings of the NRC Seismic Analysis of Piping Program, Seismic Engineering,” ASME PVP, 364, pp. 129–139.
ASME, 2010, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III (Div. 1) & VIII (Div. 2), The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
Markl, A. R. C., 1952, “Fatigue Tests of Piping Components,” Trans. ASME, 74(3), pp. 287–303.
Rodabaugh, E. C., and Wood, G. E., 1998, Report on Fatigue, Moment Capacity and Burst Tests of Induction Bends, International Piping Systems, Ltd., Port Allen, LA.
Report No. NUREG-75/067, 1975, “Technical Report Investigation and Evaluation of Cracking in Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping of Boiling Water Reactor Plants,” Pipe Cracking Study Group, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Reproduced by National Technical Information Services, Report No. PB-246-645.
Imazu, A., Miura, R., Nakumura, K., Nagata, T., and Okabayashi, K., 1977, “Elevated Temperature Elastic–Plastic–Creep Test of an Elbow Subjected to In-Plane Moment Loading,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 99(2), pp. 291–297. [CrossRef]
Bolt, S. E., and Greenstreet, W. L., 1971, “Experimental Determination of Plastic Collapse Loads for Pipe Elbows,” ASME Paper No. 71-PVP-37.
Hilsenkopf, P., Boneh, B., and Sollogoub, P., 1988, “Experimental Study of Behavior and Functional Capability of Ferritic Steel Elbows and Austenitic Stainless Steel Thin-Walled Elbows,” Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 33(2), pp. 111–128. [CrossRef]
Bhandari, S., Fortmann, M., Grueter, L., Heliot, J., Meyer, P., Percie Du Sert, B., Prado, A., and Zeibig, H., 1986, “Crack Propagation in a LMFBR Elbow,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 91(2), pp. 107–119. [CrossRef]
Ueda, M., Kano, T., and Yoshitoshi, A., 1984, “Thermal Ratcheting Criteria and Behavior of Piping Elbows,” Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 9–14, pp. 16–26.
Ueda, M., Kano, T., and Yoshitoshi, A., 1990, “Thermal Ratcheting Criteria and Behavior of Piping Elbows,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 112(1), pp. 71–75. [CrossRef]
Robertson, A., Hongjun, L., and Mackenzie, D., 2005, “Plastic Collapse of Pipe Bends Under Combined Internal Pressure and In-plane Bending,” Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 82(5), pp. 407–416. [CrossRef]
Suzuki, K., Namita, Y., Abe, H., Ichihashi, I., Suzuki, K., Ishiwata, M., Fujiwaka, T., and Yokota, H., 2002, “Seismic Proving Test of Ultimate Piping Strength,” ICONE-10, Paper No. 22225.
Ayob, A. B., Moffat, D. G., and Mistry, J., 2003, “The Interaction of Pressure, In-Plane Moment and Torque Loadings on Piping Elbows,” Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 80(12), pp. 861–869. [CrossRef]
Chen, X., Gao, B., and Chen, G., 2006, “Ratcheting Study of Pressurized Elbows Subjected to Reversed In-Plane Bending,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 128(4), pp. 525–532. [CrossRef]
Oh, C.-S., Kim, Y.-J., and Park, C.-Y., 2008, “Shakedown Limit Loads for Elbows Under Internal Pressure and Cylic In-Plane Bending,” Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 85(6), pp. 394–405. [CrossRef]
Shi, H., Chen, G., Wang, Y., and Chen, X., 2013, “Ratcheting Behavior of Pressurized Elbow Pipe With Local Wall Thinning,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 102–103, pp. 14–23. [CrossRef]
Vishnuvardhan, S., Raghava, G., Ganhdi, P., Saravanan, M., Goyal, S., Arora, P., Gupta, S. K., and Bhasin, V., 2013, “Ratcheting Failure of Pressurized Pipes and Elbows Under Reversed Bending,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 105–106, pp. 79–89. [CrossRef]
Valeris, G. E., Karamanos, S. A., and Gresnigt, A. M., 2013, “Pipe Elbows Under Strong Cyclic Loading,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 135(1), p. 011207. [CrossRef]
Takahashi, K., Tsunoi, S., Hara, T., Ueno, T., Mikami, A., Takada, H., Ando, K., and Shiratori, M., 2010, “Experimental Study of Low-Cycle Fatigue of Pipe Elbows With Local Wall Thinning and Life Estimations Using Finite Element Analysis,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 87(5), pp. 211–219. [CrossRef]
Urabe, Y., Takahashi, K., and Ando, K., 2012, “Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Seismic Assessment for Elbow Pipe Having Local Wall Thinning,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 134(4), p. 041801. [CrossRef]
Chen, X., Chen, X., Yu, D., and Gao, B., 2013, “Recent Progresses in Experimental Investigation and Finite Element Analysis of Ratcheting in Pressurized Piping,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 101, pp. 113–142. [CrossRef]
Hassan, T., Zhu, Y., and Matzen, V. C., 1998, “Improved Ratcheting Analysis of Piping Components,” Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 75(8), pp. 643–652. [CrossRef]
Bari, S., and Hassan, T., 2000, “Anatomy of Coupled Constitutive Models for Ratcheting Simulation,” Int. J. Plast., 16(3–4), pp. 381–409. [CrossRef]
Bari, S., and Hassan, T., 2001, “Kinematic Hardening Rules in Uncoupled Modeling for Multiaxial Ratcheting Simulation,” Int. J. Plast., 17(7), pp. 885–905. [CrossRef]
Bari, S., and Hassan, T., 2002, “An Advancement in Cyclic Plasticity Modeling for Multiaxial Ratcheting Simulation,” Int. J. Plast., 18(7), pp. 873–894. [CrossRef]
Hassan, T., Taleb, L., and Krishna, S., 2008, “Influence of Non-Proportional Loading on Ratcheting Responses and Simulations by Two Recent Cyclic Plasticity Models,” Int. J. Plast., 24(10), pp. 1863–1889. [CrossRef]
Rahman, S. M., Hassan, T., and Corona, E., 2008, “Evaluation of Cyclic Plasticity Models in Ratcheting Simulation of Straight Pipes Under Cyclic Bending and Steady Internal Pressure,” Int. J. Plast., 24(10), pp. 1756–1791. [CrossRef]
Krishna, S., Hassan, T., Naceur, I. B., Sai, K., and Cailletaud, G., 2009, “Macro Versus Micro Scale Cyclic Plasticity Models in Simulating Nonproportional Cyclic and Ratcheting Responses of Stainless Steel 304,” Int. J. Plast., 25(10), pp. 1910–1949. [CrossRef]
Cheng, P. Y., and Hassan, T., 2009, “Residual Stresses and Strain Ratcheting Responses of Welded Piping Joints Under Low-Cycle Fatigue Loading,” ASME PVP Paper No. 2009-77813. [CrossRef]
Fenton, M., and Hassan, T., 2014, “Low-Cycle Fatigue Failure Responses of Short and Long Radius Elbows,” ASME PVP Paper No. 2014-28805. [CrossRef]
Hassan, T., and Rahman, M., “Constitutive Models in Simulating Low-Cycle Fatigue and Ratcheting Responses of Elbow Piping Component,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol. (submitted). [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the elbow specimen and test setup showing the actuator and load cell of the universal testing machine and (b) a sketch of the elbow specimen and test boundary conditions (dimensions are in mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of the ΔD apparatus composed of four LVDTs and four spring loaded supports attached to a rigid polymer ring and (b) schematic of the ΔD apparatus.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Elbow specimen diameter and thickness measurement locations: (a) cross sections A–F on straight pipe and G–K on elbow, (b) elbow and straight pipe wall thickness measurement locations 1–12 (see Table 1) for each of the A–K cross sections, and (c) weld thickness measurement locations 1–8 (see Table 3).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Loading paths prescribed in the elbow experiments: (a) displacement-controlled cycle at steady internal pressure and (b) force-controlled cycle at steady internal pressure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

An elbow specimen showing through-wall fatigue crack at a flank

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Responses from elbow specimen 4 (see Table 4): (a) force–displacement (P–δ), (b) positive and negative peak forces as a function of the number of cycle N, (c) flank to flank diameter change (ΔDx) versus δ, (d) positive and negative peaks of ΔDx as a function of N, (e) extrados circumferential strain (εθ) versus δ, and (f) positive and negative extrados εθ peaks as a function of N.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mean and amplitude responses of (a) and (b) force (Pm and Pc) and (c) and (d) flank to flank diameter change (ΔDmx and ΔDax) as a function of the number of cycle N from specimens 1, 3, and 4 (see Table 4).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

First cycle force–displacement (P–δ) hysteresis responses from (a) specimen 1, (b) specimen 3, and (c) specimen 4 (see Table 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Mean and amplitude responses of (a) and (b) circumferential strain (εmθ and εaθ) and (c) and (d) axial strain (εmx and εax) at flank as a function of the number of cycle N from elbow specimens 1, 3, and 4 (see Table 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Extrados circumferential strain responses: (a) mean (εmθ) and (b) amplitude (εaθ) as a function of number of cycle N from specimens 1, 3, and 4 (see Table 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Intrados circumferential strain responses: (a) mean (εmθ) and (b) amplitude (εaθ) as a function of number of cycle N from specimens 1, 3, and 4 (see Table 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Influence of displacement amplitude (δc) on elbow responses from specimens 1 and 2: (a) force amplitude (Pc), (b) flank to flank diameter change amplitude (ΔDax), (c) flank to flank diameter change mean (ΔDmx), and (d) flank circumferential strain mean (εmθ).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Elbow responses from force-controlled loading cycle: (a) force–displacement (P–δ), (b) flank to flank diameter change (ΔDx), (c) flank circumferential strain (εθ), and (d) circumferential strain ratcheting (εmθ) from specimens 5 and 6 (see Table 5).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Uniaxial loading responses of SS304L developed for model parameter determination: (a) tensile stress–strain curve, (b) force-controlled cyclic (uniaxial ratcheting) response, and (c) positive peak axial strain (εxp) ratcheting as a function of number of cycles N.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Biaxial loading responses of SS304L developed for model parameter determination: (a) axial stress–strain hysteresis loops, (b) circumferential strain (εθ) ratcheting, and (c) positive peak circumferential strain (εθp) ratcheting as a function of number of cycles N.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Stress–strain curve composed from tensile stress–strain curve and force-controlled (uniaxial ratcheting) stress–strain curve for model parameter determination

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In