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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Pressure Cycle Testing of Cr–Mo Steel Pressure Vessels Subjected to Gaseous Hydrogen

[+] Author and Article Information
Junichiro Yamabe

International Research Center for Hydrogen Energy,
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use
and Storage (HYDROGENIUS),
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
International Institute for Carbon-Neutral
Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER),
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e-mail: yamabe@mech.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Hisatake Itoga

Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use
and Storage (HYDROGENIUS),
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e-mail: itoga.hisatake.284@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Tohru Awane

Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use
and Storage (HYDROGENIUS),
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e-mail: awane.toru.438@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Takashi Matsuo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Fukuoka University,
8-19-1 Nanakuma,
Jonan-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
e-mail: tmatsuo@fukuoka-u.ac.jp

Hisao Matsunaga

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use
and Storage (HYDROGENIUS),
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
International Institute for Carbon-Neutral
Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER),
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e-mail: matsunaga.hisao.964@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Saburo Matsuoka

Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use
and Storage (HYDROGENIUS),
Kyushu University,
744 Moto-oka,
Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi,
Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
e-mail: matsuoka.saburo.204@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 15, 2014; final manuscript received March 13, 2015; published online August 25, 2015. Assoc. Editor: David L. Rudland.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 138(1), 011401 (Aug 25, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: PVT-14-1204; doi: 10.1115/1.4030086 History: Received December 15, 2014

Pressure cycle tests were performed on two types of Cr–Mo steel pressure vessels with notches machined on their inside under hydrogen-gas pressures, between 0.6 and 45 MPa at room temperature. Fatigue crack growth (FCG) and fracture toughness tests of the Cr–Mo steels samples from the vessels were also carried out in gaseous hydrogen. The Cr–Mo steels showed accelerated FCG rates in gaseous hydrogen compared to ambient air. The fracture toughness of the Cr–Mo steels in gaseous hydrogen was significantly smaller than that in ambient air. Four pressure vessels were tested with gaseous hydrogen. All pressure vessels failed by leak-before-break (LBB). The LBB failure of one pressure vessel could not be estimated by using the fracture toughness in gaseous hydrogen KIC,H; accordingly, the LBB assessment based on KIC,H is conservative and there is a possibility that KIC,H does not provide a reasonable assessment of LBB. In contrast, the fatigue lives of all pressure vessels could be estimated by using the accelerated FCG rates in gaseous hydrogen.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Shapes and dimensions in mm of CT specimens for FCG and fracture toughness tests: (a) FCG test and (b) fracture toughness test

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Fig. 2

Pressure cycle testing of Cr–Mo steel pressure vessels with gaseous hydrogen. (a) Photographs of pressure vessels subjected to hydrogen-pressure cycling and (b) shapes and dimensions of storage cylinders sampled from steels A and B for pressure cycling.

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Fig. 3

Microstructures of steels A and B (reference: θ-axis direction). (a) Optical micrograph, (b) crystal-orientation image by EBSD, and (c) definition of cylindrical coordinates.

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Fig. 4

FCG behaviors of steels A and B in the presence of hydrogen. (a) Relationship between da/dN and ΔK in air and in gaseous hydrogen, (b) effect of test frequency on hydrogen-enhanced FCG acceleration, and (c) effect of hydrogen-gas pressure on hydrogen-enhanced FCG acceleration.

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Fig. 5

Results of fracture toughness tests of steels A and B. (a) P–VL curves and (b) J–Δa curves.

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Fig. 6

Photographs of pressure vessels after hydrogen-pressure cycling at pressures between 0.6 and 45 MPa under room temperature. (a) A-1 pressure vessel (notch depth: 6.0 mm and wall thickness: 25.5 mm), (b) A-2 pressure vessel (notch depth: 18.0 mm and wall thickness: 25.5 mm), (c) B-1 pressure vessel (notch depth: 12.0 mm and wall thickness: 30.0 mm), and (d) B-2 pressure vessel (notch depth: 24.0 mm and wall thickness: 30.0 mm).

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Fig. 7

Fatigue-crack extensions from notches in pressure vessels during hydrogen-pressure or hydraulic cycling. (a) A-1 pressure vessel (notch depth: 6.0 mm and wall thickness: 25.5 mm), (b) A-2 pressure vessel (notch depth: 18.0 mm and wall thickness: 25.5 mm), (c) B-1 pressure vessel (notch depth: 12.0 mm and wall thickness: 30.0 mm), (d) B-2 pressure vessel (notch depth: 24.0 mm and wall thickness: 30.0 mm), and (e) B-3 pressure vessel (notch depth: 24.0 mm and wall thickness: 30.0 mm).

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Fig. 8

Fracture surface morphologies of pressure vessels after pressure cycle tests by SEM. (a) Deepest point for A-1 pressure vessel, (b) ΔK = 69 MPa·m1/2 at the deepest point for A-2 pressure vessel, (c) deepest point for B-1 pressure vessel, (d) ΔK = 66 MPa·m1/2 at the deepest point for B-2 pressure vessel, and (e) ΔK = 53 MPa·m1/2 at the deepest point for B-3 pressure vessel

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Fig. 9

Hoop stress in the wall of pressure vessels calculated by FEM. (a) FEM model and boundary condition for pressure vessel B, (b) Hoop stress calculated by FEM, and (c) Hoop stress approximated by cubic polynomial function.

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