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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Evolution of Temperature Distribution and Microstructure in Multipass Welded AISI 321 Stainless Steel Plates With Different Thicknesses

[+] Author and Article Information
Soheil Nakhodchi

Assistant Professor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
K. N. Toosi University of Technology,
Tehran 1969764499, Iran
e-mail: snakhodchi@kntu.ac.ir

Ali Shokuhfar

Professor
Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Research Laboratory,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
K. N. Toosi University of Technology,
Tehran 1969764499, Iran
e-mail: shokuhfar@kntu.ac.ir

Saleh Akbari Iraj

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
K. N. Toosi University of Technology,
Tehran 1969764499, Iran
e-mail: saleh.akbari.iraj@gmail.com

Brian G. Thomas

Professor
Metal Process Simulation Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: bgthomas@illinois.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 18, 2014; final manuscript received April 4, 2015; published online June 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Xian-Kui Zhu.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 137(6), 061405 (Dec 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: PVT-14-1133; doi: 10.1115/1.4030367 History: Received August 18, 2014; Revised April 04, 2015; Online June 09, 2015

Prediction of temperature distribution, microstructure, and residual stresses generated during the welding process is crucial for the design and assessment of welded structures. In the multipass welding process of parts with different thicknesses, temperature distribution, microstructure, and residual stresses vary during each weld pass and from one part to another. This complicates the welding process and its analysis. In this paper, the evolution of temperature distribution and the microstructure generated during the multipass welding of AISI 321 stainless steel plates were studied numerically and experimentally. Experimental work involved designing and manufacturing benchmark specimens, performing the welding, measuring the transient temperature history, and finally observing and evaluating the microstructure. Benchmark specimens were made of corrosion-resistant AISI 321 stainless steel plates with different thicknesses of 6 mm and 10 mm. The welding process consisted of three welding passes of two shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process and one gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Finite element (FE) models were developed using the DFLUX subroutine to model the moving heat source and two different approaches for thermal boundary conditions were evaluated using FILM subroutines. The DFLUX and FILM subroutines are presented for educational purposes, as well as a procedure for their verification.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Welding procedure specification

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Fig. 2

(a) Thermocouples attached to the welding plates. (b) Location of the thermocouples also showing the coordinate system used in the FE simulations, a = 5 mm, b = 12.5 mm, and c = 5 mm, dimensions are in millimeter.

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Fig. 3

Measured time-temperature histories during the welding experiment in the left side plate, 10 mm thick (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, and (d) third peak details

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Fig. 4

Measured time-temperature histories during the welding experiment in the right side plate, 6 mm thick (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, and (d) third peak details

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Fig. 5

Microstructure of the welded plates: (a) microstructure of the AISI 321 base material, (b) microstructure of the weld, and (c) microstructure of weld cross section showing the weld fusion line

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Fig. 6

FE model and mesh used for the simulation of the multipass welding process

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Fig. 7

Temperature-dependent thermal properties of AISI 321 used in the simulation [20]

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Fig. 8

Comparison between the thermocouple reading and FE simulation in T1: (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, (d) third peak details, and (e) third pass difference between two FE model

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Fig. 9

Comparison between thermocouple reading and FE simulation in T2: (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, (d) third peak details, (e) first pass difference between two FE models, (f) second pass difference between two FE models, and (g) third pass difference between two FE models

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Fig. 10

Comparison between the thermocouple reading and FE simulation in T3: (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, (d) third peak details, (e) first pass difference between two FE models, (f) second pass difference between two FE models, and (g) third pass difference between two FE models

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Fig. 11

Comparison between the thermocouple reading and FE simulation in T4: (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, (d) third peak details, (e) first pass difference between two FE models, and (f) third pass difference between two FE models

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Fig. 12

Comparison between thermocouple reading and FE simulation in T5: (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, and (d) third peak details

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Fig. 13

Comparison between the thermocouple reading and FE simulation in T6: (a) total time, (b) first peak details, (c) second peak details, and (d) third peak details

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Fig. 14

(a) Location of the points along the weld line and (b) comparison between the temperature history of these points in the first pass

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Fig. 15

Temperature contour in the weld cross section in the (a) first weld pass, (b) second pass, and (c) third weld pass

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Fig. 16

Typical 3D temperature distribution during multipass welding in the third weld pass

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Fig. 17

Peak temperatures obtained from thermocouple readings: (a) 10 mm thickness plate and (b) 6 mm thickness plate

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