The dynamic behavior of carbon fiber containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading is studied. The experimental observation of dynamic response of carbon fiber cylindrical shells is presented, in which failure modes of structures are especially concerned. The load-bearing capability and scale effect of carbon fiber cylindrical shells are discussed. Carbon fiber cylindrical shells demonstrate better explosion-resistant performance than that of glass fiber cylindrical shells for the specific types of tests and shell configurations investigated. The current study may contribute to the further understanding on the design and application of carbon fiber containment vessels.