In the research presented in this paper, a failure analysis had been carried out to identify causes of an incident, which had taken place after an operation to repair a leak in an interstate natural gas pipeline. In this operation, a partial encirclement reinforcement (patch) was welded to the carrier pipe according to an available hot taping procedure, while gas was flowing in the pipeline. The failure analysis commenced with preliminary steps of information gathering of background data regarding the repair operation and then several samples were extracted for macroscopic and microscopic metallurgical examinations. In addition to fractographic analyses of fracture surfaces, pipe material was examined because the pipeline had been in service for prolonged period and there was not any official material information available. The analyses disclose that hydrogen-assisted cracking, wrong design of branch connection, paint coating, and pipeline operating conditions were major factors contributing to the failure. The work undertaken also included development and recommendation of a repair procedure to avoid similar failures in the future.