In this paper, a series of impact tests on S30403 austenitic stainless steel at 20/−196/−269 °C were performed to determine the effects of cryogenic temperatures on the material properties. Both base plate and welded joint including weld and heat-affected zone were tested to obtain the Charpy impact energy KV2 and lateral expansion rate at the cross section. It was found that when the test temperature decreased from 20 °C to −196 °C or −269 °C, both the Charpy impact energy KV2 at the base plate and welded joint decreased drastically. Specifically, the impact energy KV2 decreased by 20% at the base plate and decreased by 54% at the welded joint from 20 °C to −196 °C, but the impact energy of base plate and welded joint did not decrease, even increased when test temperature decreased from −196 °C to −269 °C. Either at 20 °C or −196 °C, the impact energy KV2 with 5 × 10 × 55 mm3 specimens was about 0.53 times that of the 7.5 × 10 × 55 mm3 specimens, much lower than 2/3, the ratio of two specimens’ cross section areas.