Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Effect of Reeling on Sour Service Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Welded API5LX65 Line Pipe

[+] Author and Article Information
Ramgopal Thodla, Feng Gui

Dublin, OH 43017

J. R. Gordon

Microalloying International,
Houston, TX 77064

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 14, 2015; final manuscript received July 22, 2015; published online November 18, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Kunio Hasegawa.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 138(2), 021405 (Nov 18, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: PVT-15-1028; doi: 10.1115/1.4031165 History: Received February 14, 2015; Revised July 22, 2015

The effect of reeling on the fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) behavior of welded pipe was investigated both in-air as well as in sour environment. The FCGR behavior of the reeled pipe in various notch locations, such as parent pipe (PP), weld center line (WCL), and heat affected zone (HAZ), did not exhibit any effect of reeling (i.e., the properties in the strained and aged conditions were similar to the as-fabricated welds). Frequency scan FCGR tests in sour environment (pH = 5/0.0031 MPa H2S) exhibited maximum FCGR in the range of 10× to 35× higher than the in-air values at frequencies in the range of 3–1 mHz and 3× to 5× at frequencies in the range of 0.3 Hz (risers). In sour service, WCL exhibited better fatigue performance than the PP and HAZ in all conditions. Fatigue performance of PP and WCL was independent of reeling. The poorest fatigue performance was observed in unstrained HAZ. Fatigue performance of HAZ extrados (side last strained in compression) and intrados (side last strained in tension) was similar and better than unstrained HAZ. It was also found that the FCGR in sour environments was controlled by the internal hydrogen due to bulk charging from the sour environment. The overall conclusion is that reeling has no detrimental effect on sour service fatigue crack growth behavior, i.e., sour service fatigue performance of reeled pipe is the same as unreeled pipe.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Gangloff, R. P. , 2003, “ Hydrogen Assisted Cracking of High Strength Alloys,” Comprehensive Structural Inteqrity, Vol. 6, I. Milne , R. O. Ritchie , B. Karihaloo , J. Petit , and P. Scott , eds., Elsevier Science, New York, pp. 31–101.
Thodla, R. , Gui, F. , Robin, R. , and Xia, J. , 2010, “ Corrosion Fatigue Performance of Girth Welded X65 Seamless Pipe for Flowline,” Corrosion 2010, NACE International, Paper No. NACE-10311.
Gangloff, R. P. , 2008, “ Science-Based Prognosis to Manage Structural Alloy Performance in Hydrogen,” Effects of Hydrogen on Materials, Proceedings of the 2008 International Hydrogen Conference: Effects of Hydrogen on Materials, B. Somerday , P. Sofronis , and R. Jones , eds., ASTM International, West Conshohocken, pp. 1–21.
McMaster, F. , Bowman, J. , Thompson, H. , Zhang, M. , and Kinyon, S. , 2008, “ Sour Service Corrosion Fatigue Testing of Flowline and Riser Welds,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2008-57059.
Buitrago, J. , Weir, M. S. , Kan, W. C. , Hudak, S. J., Jr. , and McMaster, F. , 2004, “ Effect of Loading Frequency on Fatigue Performance of Risers in Sour Environment,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2004-51641.
Hammond, R. I. , and Baxter, D. P. , 2008, “ Corrosion Fatigue of Simulated C–Mn Steel HAZs in Sour Produced Fluids,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2008-57149.
Jun Nakamura, N. H. , Fukuba, T. , Thodla, R. , Scott, C. S. , and Gui, F. , 2013, “ Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Fracture Toughness of Non-Sour Service Grade ×65 and ×80 in Sour Environments,” ASME Paper No. OMAE2013-10573.
Gangloff, R. P. , 2005, “ Environmental Cracking–Corrosion Fatigue,” ASTM Handbook 2005, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, pp. 302–321.
Wei, R. P. , and Gangloff, R. P. , 1989, “ Environmentally Assisted Crack Growth in Structural Alloys: Perspectives and New Directions,” Fracture Mechanics: Perspectives and Directions, ASTM STP 1020, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 233–264.
Gasem, Z. M. , and Gangloff, R. P. , 2000, “ Effect of Temper on Environmental Fatigue Crack Propagation in 7000-Series Aluminum Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 331–337, pp. 1479–1488. [CrossRef]
Gasem, Z. M. , 2012, “ Frequency Dependent Environmental Fatigue Crack Propagation in the 7xxx Alloy/Aqueous Chloride System,” Ph.D. thesis, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
Gui, F. , Ramgopal, T. , and Mueller, M. G. , 2012, “ Role of Sour Environments on the Corrosion Fatigue Growth Rate of X65 Pipe Steel,” Corrosion, 68(8), pp. 730–738. [CrossRef]
Krishnamurthy, R. M. , 1991, “ Microstructure and Yield Strength Effects on Hydrogen Environment Fatigue of Steels,” Ph.D. thesis, Materials Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, p. 265.
Sofronis, P. , Liang, Y. , and Aravas, N. , 2001, “ Hydrogen Induced Shear Localization of the Plastic Flow in Metals and Alloys,” Eur. J. Mech. A/Solids, 20(6), pp. 857–872. [CrossRef]
Sofronis, P. , and McMeeking, R. M. , 1989, “ Numerical Analysis of Hydrogen Transport Near a Blunting Crack Tip,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 37(3), pp. 317–350. [CrossRef]
Sofronis, P. , Robertson, I. M. , and Johnson, D. D. , 2010, “ A Combined Materials Science/Mechanics Approach to the Study of Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels,” 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Review, Project ID # PD023.
Liang, Y. , and Sofronis, P. , 2003, “ Micromechanics and Numerical Modelling of the Hydrogen–Particle–Matrix Interactions in Nickel-Base Alloys,” Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 11(4), p. 523. [CrossRef]
McEvily, A. J. , 2009, “ Technical Note—On the Cyclic Crack-Tip Opening Displacement,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 32(3), pp. 284–285. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Paris curves for PP, HAZ, and WCL in the unstrained, extrados, and intrados condition: (a) PP, (b) HAZ, and (c) WCL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Notch location of WCL, and HAZ in unstrained, extrados, and intrados pipes: (a) unstrained weld, (b) extrados weld, and (c) intrados weld

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Crack length as a function of time for PP intrados in environment: (a) sample 1 and (b) sample 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of reeling on the FCGR frequency scans of HAZ in environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of notch orientations in a hollow bar or cylinder (ASTME399)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

FCGR as a function of frequency in environment for PP, unstrained HAZ, and weld: (a) as-fabricated, (b) extrados, and (c) intrados

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of reeling on the FCGR frequency scans of PP in environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of reeling on the FCGR in environment on WCL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of reeling and microstructure on the plateau FCGR in sour environments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of reeling on the Paris curves of the PP in sour environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of reeling on the Paris curves of the HAZ in sour environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effect of reeling on the Paris curves of the WCL in sour environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Relationship between FCGR and plateau frequency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Relationship between YS and hardness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Effect of changing gas chemistry from sour environment to pure N2 on the FCGR at a low frequency of 1 mHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Effect of YS on the plateau FCGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Effect of changing gas chemistry from sour environment to pure CO2 on the FCGR at a low frequency of 1 mHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Effect of changing chemistry on the FCGR as a function of frequency



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In