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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Effect of High-Temperature Corrosion on the Service Life of P91 Piping in Biomass Co-firing

[+] Author and Article Information
C. P. O'Hagan

Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering and Informatics,
NUI Galway,
Engineering Building,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland;
Ryan Institute for Environmental, Marine and
Energy Research,
NUI Galway,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
e-mail: c.ohagan1@nuigalway.ie

R. A. Barrett

Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering and Informatics,
NUI Galway,
Engineering Building,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland;
Ryan Institute for Environmental, Marine and
Energy Research,
NUI Galway,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland;
e-mail: Richard.Barrett@nuigalway.ie

S. B. Leen

Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering and Informatics,
NUI Galway,
Engineering Building,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland;
Ryan Institute for Environmental,
Marine and Energy Research,
NUI Galway,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
e-mail: Sean.Leen@nuigalway.ie

R. F. D. Monaghan

Mechanical Engineering,
College of Engineering and Informatics,
NUI Galway,
Engineering Building,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland;
Ryan Institute for Environmental,
Marine and Energy Research,
NUI Galway,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland;
Combustion Chemistry Centre,
National University of Ireland,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
e-mail: Rory.Monaghan@nuigalway.ie

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 7, 2015; final manuscript received January 18, 2016; published online February 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Kunio Hasegawa.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 138(2), 021407 (Feb 24, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: PVT-15-1155; doi: 10.1115/1.4032648 History: Received July 07, 2015; Revised January 18, 2016

Co-firing biomass with traditional fuels is becoming increasingly relevant to thermal power plant operators due to increasingly stringent regulations on greenhouse gas emissions. It has been found that when biomass is co-fired, an altered ash composition is formed, which leads to increased levels of corrosion of the superheater tube walls. Synthetic salt, which is representative of the ash formed in the co-firing of a 70% peat and 30% biomass mixture, has been produced and applied to samples of P91 at 540 °C for up to 28 days. This paper presents results for oxide layer thickness and loss of substrate from testing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) element maps are obtained and presented in order to gain an understanding of the complex corrosion mechanism which occurs. A finite-element (FE) methodology is presented which combines corrosion effects with creep damage in pressurized tubes. The effects of corrosion tube wall loss and creep damage on tube stresses and creep life are investigated.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Image showing the active oxidation process; images of tubes in situ and tubes following removal from plant [32]

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Fig. 2

Dimensions and mechanical loading of P91 pipe

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Fig. 3

FE model showing direction of nodal movement

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Fig. 4

Flowchart detailing the user subroutines implemented in abaqus

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Fig. 5

SEM images of P91 after exposure to synthetic salt at 540 °C for (a) 1 day, (b) 4 days, (c) 7 days, (d) 14 days, (e) 21 days, and (f) 28 days

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Fig. 6

Schematic showing different stages of delamination process: (a) salt deposition, (b) oxide formation, (c) crack initiation, (d) delamination, and (e) oxide formation

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Fig. 7

SEM image and EDX element maps of sample exposed to synthetic salt for 4 days

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Fig. 8

Thickness of oxide layer following exposure to synthetic salt

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Fig. 9

Creep curves obtained from FE analysis compared with the experimental data from Hyde et al. [10]

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Fig. 10

Depth of substrate removed following exposure compared with model and bilinear fit

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Fig. 11

Comparison of bilinear rate versus parabolic rate for long-term corrosion

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Fig. 12

Hoop stress redistribution and increase with time at 10 MPa

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Fig. 13

abaqus plots for 20 MPa internal pressure showing hoop stress distribution and growing oxide layer with time

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Fig. 14

Damage curve for superheater tube with internal pressure of (a) 10 MPa, (b) 15 MPa, and (c) 20 MPa

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Fig. 15

Comparison of creep rupture life predictions from the Kachanov model and the Larson–Miller parameter

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