The brittle fracture prevention model is of great importance to the safety of pressure vessels. Compared to the semi-empirical approach adopted in various pressure vessel standards, a model based on Master Curve technique is developed in this paper. Referring to ASME nuclear code, the safety features including the lower bound fracture toughness and a margin factor equal to 2 for the stress intensity factor produced by primary stress are adopted in the new model. The technical background of the brittle fracture model in ASME VIII-2 has been analyzed and discussed, and then its inappropriate items have been modified in the new model. Minimum design temperature curves, impact toughness requirements, and temperature adjustment for low stress condition are established on the basis of new model. The comparison with the relevant curves in ASME VIII-2 is also made. The applicability of the new model is verified by the measured fracture toughness and impact toughness data of several kinds of pressure vessel steels. The results suggest that the minimum design temperature and the impact test requirements derived by the new model are compatible with each other. More testing data of different steels to check this model is necessary for further engineering application.