0
SPECIAL SECTION PAPERS

The Residual Strength of Breathing Air Composite Cylinders Toward the End of Their Service Life—A First Assessment of a Real-Life Sample

[+] Author and Article Information
Georg W. Mair

Division 3.2,
BAM Federal Institute of Materials
Research and Testing,
Unter den Eichen 44-46,
Berlin D-12203, Germany
e-mail: Georg.Mair@BAM.de

Irene Scholz

Division 3.2,
BAM Federal Institute of Materials
Research and Testing,
Unter den Eichen 44-46,
Berlin D-12203, Germany
e-mail: Irene.Scholz@BAM.de

Thorsten Schönfelder

Division 3.3,
BAM Federal Institute of Materials
Research and Testing,
Unter den Eichen 44-46,
Berlin D-12203, Germany
e-mail: Thorsten.Schoenfelder@BAM.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 25, 2015; final manuscript received June 8, 2016; published online July 18, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Pierre Mertiny.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 138(6), 060906 (Jul 18, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: PVT-15-1030; doi: 10.1115/1.4033878 History: Received February 25, 2015; Revised June 08, 2016

Applications by fire brigades expose the composite cylinders to harsh temperature and handling conditions. Standards have been used for certifying composite cylinders, which are designed for transport of dangerous goods and do not reflect service conditions specific to fire brigades. In this paper, the residual safety of a design type (fully wrapped with aluminum and carbon fiber composite) at the end of their service life of 15 yrs is analyzed. One sample underwent hydraulic load cycle (LC) tests, another conventional burst tests, and the third slow burst tests (SBTs). The statistical evaluation and the handling of an unexpected high amount of early failures are shown.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Technical Committee CEN/TC 23, 2002, “ Transportable Gas Cylinders—Fully Wrapped Composite Cylinders,” Beuth-Verlag, Berlin, Standard No. EN 12245: 2002.
Haibach, E. , 1989, Betriebsfestigkeit: Verfahren und Daten zur Bauteilberechnung, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Mair, G. W. , Duffner, E. , Schoppa, A. , and Szczepaniak, M. , 2001, “ Aspekte der Restfestigkeitsermittlung von Composite-Druckgefäßen mittels hydraulischer Prüfung,” Tech. Sicherh., 1(9), pp. 50–55.
Mair, G. W. , and Hoffmann, M. , 2013, “ Assessment of the Residual Strength Thresholds of Composite Pressure Receptacles—Criteria for Hydraulic Load Cycle Testing,” Mater. Test., 55(2), pp. 121–129. [CrossRef]
Mair, G. W. , Hoffmann, M. , and Schönfelder, T. , 2013, “ The Slow Burst Testing of Composite Cylinders Part I: Slow Burst Testing of Samples as a Method for Quantification of Cylinder Degradation,” International Conference on Hydrogen Safety ICHS, Brussels, Belgium, Sept. 9–11, Paper ID 102.
BAM, 2013, “ Technical Annex LCT (Load Cycle Test) of the Concept Additional Tests CAT: Test Procedure ‘Hydraulic Load Cycle Test’,” Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Berlin, Germany.
Mair, G. W. , Hoffmann, M. , Saul, H. , and Spode, M. , 2012, “ Betrachtung von Grenzwerten der Restfestigkeit von Composite-Druckgefäßen, Part 2: Extrapolation der Lastwechsel-Degradation,” Tech. Sicherh., 2(10), pp. 38–43.
BAM, 2013, “ Technical Annex SBT (Slow Burst Test) of the Concept Additional Tests CAT: Test Procedure ‘Slow Burst Test’,” Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Berlin, Germany.
Mair, G. W. , Hoffmann, M. , and Scherer, F. , 2014, “ Type Approval of Composite Gas Cylinders—Probabilistic Analysis of RC&S Concerning Minimum Burst Pressure,” European Hydrogen Energy Conference EHEC 2014, Seville, Spain [Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40(15), pp. 5359–5366 (2015)].
Mair, G. W. , and Hoffmann, M. , 2014, “ Regulations and Research on RC&S for Hydrogen Storage Relevant to Transport and Vehicle Issues With Special Focus on Composite Containments,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39(11), pp. 6132–6145. [CrossRef]
Mair, G. W. , and Scherer, F. , 2013, “ Statistic Evaluation of Sample Test Results to Determine Residual Strength of Composite Gas Cylinders,” Mater. Test., 55(10), pp. 728–736. [CrossRef]
Wilker, H. , 2010, “ Weibullstatistik in der Praxis Band 3,” Leitfaden zur Zuverlässigkeitsermittlung technischer Komponenten, Books on Demand, Norderstedt, Germany.
Rossow, E. , 1964, “ Eine einfache Rechenschiebernäherung an die den normal scores entsprechenden Prozentpunkte,” Qualitätskontrolle, 9(12), pp. 146–147.
Bertsche, B. , and Lechner, G. , 1999, Zuverlässigkeit im Maschinenbau—Ermittlung von Bauteil- und System-Zuverlässigkeiten, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Wilker, H. , 2010, “ Band 3: Weibull-Statistik in der Praxis: Leitfaden zur Zuverlässigkeitsermittlung technischer Komponenten,” Books on Demand, Norderstedt Germany.
Wiedemann, J. , 1989, Leichtbau. Band 2: Konstruktion, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Scott, A. E. , Sinclair, I. , Spearing, S. M. , Thionnet, A. , and Bunsell, A. R. , 2012, “ Damage Accumulation in a Carbon/Epoxy Composite: Comparison Between a Multiscale Model and Computed Tomography Experimental Results,” Composites, Part A, 43(9), pp. 1514–1522. [CrossRef]
BAM, 2014, “ CAT: Concept of Additional Tests for the Determination of the Probability of Survival of Pressure Receptacles Made From Composite Materials,” Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Berlin, Germany.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

LCT results (cycled at 2–45 MPa at RT); 25 specimens assessed as LND

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

LCT results (2–45 MPa at RT) of 25 specimens assessed as three-parametric WD

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Modified best-fit straight lines for combined distribution; LCT 2–45 MPa at RT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Both groups of a sample displayed as separate samples with LND in GAUSSian probability net; LCT 2–45 MPa at RT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Both subsamples of the original sample assessed as separate samples; LCT 2–45 MPa at RT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Most basic version of a combined distribution (using LND in both cases); LCT 2–45 MPa at RT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of SR; various assessment approaches in LND net

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Influence of sample size; chronologic development of test values

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Results from 25 cylinders tested by conventional burst tests (BT: here 60 MPa/min) in ND net, two early failures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Results from 25 cylinders tested by SBTs (1.5 MPa/min) in ND net, with indication of possible separate fit of early failures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Three-parametric WD of the 25 cylinders tested by SBT procedure

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In