Research Papers: Operations, Applications and Components

Evaluation of Leakage Through Graphite-Based Compression Packing Rings

[+] Author and Article Information
Mehdi Kazeminia

Ecole de Technologie Superieure,
1100 Notre-Dame Ouest,
Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: kazeminia.mehdi@gmail.com

Abdel-Hakim Bouzid

Fellow ASME
Ecole de Technologie Superieure,
1100 Notre-Dame Ouest,
Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: hakim.bouzid@etsmtl.ca

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 18, 2015; final manuscript received May 30, 2016; published online August 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Haofeng Chen.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(1), 011602 (Aug 24, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-15-1127; doi: 10.1115/1.4033937 History: Received June 18, 2015; Revised May 30, 2016

The prediction of leakage is one of the most challenging tasks when designing bolted flanged connections and industrial valves. Failure of these pressure vessel components can cause shutdowns but also accidents, loss of revenue, and environmental damages. With the strict regulations on fugitive emissions and environmental protection laws new tightness-based standards and design methods are being adopted to improve the sealing performance of bolted joints and valves. In addition, there is a practical interest in using a reliable correlation that could predict leak rates of one fluid on the basis of tests carried out with another on compressed packings. The paper presents an innovative approach to accurately predict and correlate leak rates in porous braided packing rings. The approach is based on Darcy–Klinkenberg to which a modified effective diffusion term is added to the equation. Experimentally measured gas flow rates were performed on a set of graphite-based compression packing rings with a large range of leak rates under isothermal steady conditions. Leakage from three different gases namely helium, nitrogen, and argon were used to validate the developed correlation. In the presence of the statistical properties of porous packings, the leak rates for different gases can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Intrinsic permeability of helium obtained from intercepts of apparent permeability fitted lines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Apparent permeability for helium, nitrogen, and argon at different gland stress levels

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Fig. 3

Leak rate versus gas inlet pressure for helium, argon, and nitrogen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

General configuration of the test bench

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

General configuration of a packed stuffing-box

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Intrinsic permeability versus gland stress

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Leak rate versus packing compression

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Fig. 8

Diffusivity parameter versus the ratio of outlet and mean pressure using helium as reference gas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Measured and predicted leak rate with helium

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Measured and predicted leak rate with argon

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Measured and predicted leak rate with nitrogen



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