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Research Papers: Pipeline Systems

The Technique of Segmental Pigging Process for Long Distance Pipeline of Oil and Gas in China

[+] Author and Article Information
Tao Deng

Guangzhou Training Center,
China National Petroleum Corporation,
Guangzhou 510510, China
e-mail: 18810107542@163.com;
ydgj@cup.edu.cn

Jun Zhou

School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering,
Southwest Petroleum University,
Chengdu 610500, China
e-mail: zhoujunswpu@163.com

Yu Zhang

South East Asia Pipeline Company Limited,
China National Petroleum Corporation,
Beijing 100028, China
e-mail: zhangyu_phd@cnpc.com.cn

Yuanyuan Chen

Civil Aviation University of China,
Tian Jin 300300, China
e-mail: chen19890205@126.com

Gong Jing

Department of Machinery and Storage & Transportation Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (Beijing),
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: taodeng519@126.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 1, 2013; final manuscript received July 16, 2016; published online August 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Allen C. Smith.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(1), 011701 (Aug 24, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-13-1187; doi: 10.1115/1.4034284 History: Received November 01, 2013; Revised July 16, 2016

Worldwide, the pipeline mileage has increased dramatically since 1948 when the industry began to keep mileage statistics for pipeline construction, especially in China. Before operating long distance oil and gas pipelines, the pressure testing for tightness and strength is of great importance for ensuring operating safety. Water is used as service fluid for the pressure testing due to its safety, and long distance pipeline is divided into a number of small sections according to complex terrain conditions. Segmental water pressure testing is now very frequently used in the oil and gas industry, ensuring safety and efficient construction of pipelines. However, some new problems may arise, in practice, for the pigging process, following water pressure testing. Based on the review of previous papers about pipes accidents, the causes can be classified into hydraulic and nonhydraulic aspects. With the method of characteristic (MOC) and basic theory of gas–liquid two-phase unsteady flow, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic transients during the pigging process. The model has been applied to some segmental pipes in China to predict varying pressures under complex terrain conditions. Pressure pulses predicted at the end of pigging in the numerical results have also been found to occur in field trials. The analysis shows that pressure pulses may cause overpressure accidents due to vapor cavity collapse. The techniques in this paper can give reasonable instructions in long distance pipeline constructing, promoting the development of Chinese oil and gas industry.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Water pressure testing schematic diagram: 1—setting pond; 2—reservoir; 3—filter casing; 4—filter; 5—centrifugal pump; 6—check valve; 7—flowmeter; 8—pressure testing car; 9—flowmeter; 10—valve; 11—valve; 12—pressure balance; 13—automatic pressure recorder; 14—pressure gage; and 15—emptying valve

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Fig. 2

The pipeline profile

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Fig. 3

The first accident of pipe rupture

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Fig. 4

The second accident of pipe rupture

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Fig. 6

Forces acting on the pig

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Fig. 5

Characteristic lines in the x–t plane

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Fig. 7

Numerical simulation of pressure at the end of pipe for the first accident

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Fig. 8

Numerical simulation of pressure at 5610 m for the first accident

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Fig. 9

Numerical simulation of pressure at the end of pipe for the second accident

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Fig. 10

Numerical simulation of pressure at 5610 m for the second accident

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