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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Numerical Analysis of Microstructure and Residual Stress in the Weld Zone of Multiwire Submerged Arc Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Enlin Yu, Haixiang Xiao

National Engineering Research Center for
Equipment and Technology of Cold Rolling Strip,
Yanshan University,
Qinhuangdao 066004, China

Yi Han

National Engineering Research Center for
Equipment and Technology of Cold Rolling Strip,
Yanshan University,
Qinhuangdao 066004, China
e-mail: hanyi2008@vip.qq.com

Ying Gao

College of Materials Science and Engineering,
Hebei University of Science and Technology,
Shijiazhuang 050018, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 5, 2015; final manuscript received July 27, 2016; published online September 28, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Haofeng Chen.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(2), 021404 (Sep 28, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: PVT-15-1249; doi: 10.1115/1.4034404 History: Received November 05, 2015; Revised July 27, 2016

As oil and gas pipelines develop toward large throughput and high pressure, more and more attention has been paid to welding quality of oil pipelines. Submerged arc welding is widely applied in manufacturing of large-diameter welded pipes, and the welding quality has an impact on pipeline safety. With a multiwire submerged arc welding test platform and real-time temperature measurement system, temperature measurement has been done for multiwire submerged arc welding process with and without flux coverage, respectively. As a result, thermal cycling curves in both cases have been obtained, and convection and radiation coefficients of flux-covered X80 pipeline steel in air-cooled environment have been corrected. By using sysweld software, a finite-element computational model was set up for microstructure and residual stress in the weld zone of multiwire longitudinal submerged arc welding. Comparative experiment has been done to obtain welding temperature field with relatively high accuracy. Calculation and analysis of residual stress versus preheat residual stress decreased with increasing preheat temperature up to 100 °C, meanwhile content of bainite in microstructure fell, facilitating reduction in residual stress to some extent. This study provides quantitative reference for further optimization of welding parameters and improvement in weld mechanical properties.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Weldment: (a) weldment dimensions; (b) temperature measuring holes; and (c) weldment

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Fig. 2

The mechanical properties: (a) the yield stress with temperature and (b) the stress–strain curve

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Fig. 3

Temperature measurement during welding

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Fig. 4

Thermal cycling curves in two cases, with and without flux: (a) with flux; (b) without flux; and (c) comparison between cases with and without flux

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Fig. 5

Temperature contour plots of inside welding at different time points: (a) 0.14 s; (b) 0.6 s; (c) 1.44 s; (d) 2 s; (e) 4 s; and (f) 54.5 s

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Fig. 6

Temperature contour plots of outside welding at different time points: (a) 1200.14 s; (b) 1200.6 s; (c) 1201.44 s; (d) 1202 s; (e) 1254.5 s; and (f) 2500 s

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Fig. 7

Comparison between calculated and measured thermal cycling curves

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Fig. 8

Comparison between simulation and welding test results: (a) inside welding and (b) outside welding

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Fig. 9

Distribution of each stress versus position: (a) z = −9; (b) z = −6; (c) z = 5; and (d) z = 2

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Fig. 10

Distribution of each stress at z = −9 versus preheat temperature: (a) axial stress; (b) circumferential stress; (c) radial stress; and (d) von Mises equivalent stress

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Fig. 11

Microstructure field contour plots of the weldment cooled till 2500 s after welding: (a) martensite microstructure; (b) bainite microstructure; (c) ferrite microstructure; and (d) austenite microstructure

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Fig. 12

Metallographic photos: (a) point A; (b) point B; (c) point C; and (d) point D

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Fig. 13

Curves of microstructure variation at point H versus preheat temperature: (a) no preheating; (b) preheating at 50 °C; (c) preheating at 75 °C; (d) preheating at 100 °C; and (e) preheating at 125 °C

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