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Research Papers: Operations, Applications and Components

Orifice Design of a Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valve

[+] Author and Article Information
Sang Chan Jang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Dong-A University,
37, Nakdong-daero 550beon-gil,
Saha-gu 49315, Busan, South Korea
e-mail: jasach2@gmail.com

Jung Ho Kang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Dong-A University,
37, Nakdong-daero 550beon-gil,
Saha-gu 49315, Busan, South Korea
e-mail: kangjh@dau.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 16, 2016; final manuscript received September 5, 2016; published online October 11, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Allen C. Smith.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(3), 031601 (Oct 11, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1047; doi: 10.1115/1.4034677 History: Received March 16, 2016; Revised September 05, 2016

An important safety factor to be considered when designing a plant is the prevention of overpressure-induced explosions, to which many plants are vulnerable because of pressurized fluids in plant components. A pilot-operated pressure relief valve is a core device for venting off overpressure formed inside vessels and pipelines. The pilot-operated pressure relief valve has a highly complicated structure, and its design and production should be thoroughly studied. In this study, a simplified structure for the pilot-operated pressure relief valve was proposed to facilitate the design and production processes, and the effective ranges of its design variables were determined to enable the prediction of the impact of the design variables in the design and production processes. The ranges determined were validated by a numerical flow analysis and experiment as follows. We calculated the maximum orifice diameter at which the main valve does not open and examined the minimum orifice diameter that can resist the impact of strong shock waves. Additionally, we defined the orifice diameter range that ensures the stable opening and closing of the main valve under various pressure conditions. The effective ranges of the design variables determined in this study can be used to ensure safe operation of a pilot-operated pressure relief valve under various pressure conditions with the design of the proposed simplified structure.

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References

ASME, 2001, “ Pressure Relief Devices Performance Test Codes,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, Standard No. ASME PTC 25-2001.
API, 2000, “ Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries Part I: Sizing and Selection,” 7th ed., American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, Standard No. API RP 520.
ISO, 2004, “ Safety Devices for Protection against Excessive Pressure Part 1: Safety Valves,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 4126-1.
ISO, 2013, “ Safety Devices for Protection against Excessive Pressure Part 4: Pilot Operated Safety Valves,” 2nd ed., International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 4126-4.
Ray, A. , 1987, “ Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Relief Valve,” Simulation, 31(5), pp. 167–172. [CrossRef]
Moussou, P. , Gibert, R. J. , Brasseur, G. , Teygeman, C. , Ferrari, J. , and Rit, J. F. , 2010, “ Instability of Pressure Relief Valves in Water Pipes,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 132(4), p. 041308. [CrossRef]
Beune, A. , Kuerten, J. G. M. , and van Heumen, M. P. C. , 2012, “ CFD Analysis With Fluid–Structure Interaction of Opening High-Pressure Safety Valves,” Comput. Fluids, 64, pp. 108–116. [CrossRef]
Kourakos, V. , Rambaud, P. , Buchlin, J. , and Chabane, S. , 2012, “ Flowforce in a Safety Relief Valve Under Incompressible, Compressible, and Two-Phase Flow Conditions,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 135(1), p. 011305. [CrossRef]
Song, X. , Cui, L. , Cao, M. , Cao, W. , Park, Y. , and Dempster, W. M. , 2014, “ A CFD Analysis of the Dynamics of a Direct-Operated Safety Relief Valve Mounted on a Pressure Vessel,” Energy Convers. Manage., 81, pp. 407–419. [CrossRef]
Aldeeb, A. A. , Darby, R. , and Arndt, S. , 2014, “ The Dynamic Response of Pressure Relief Valves in Vapor or Gas Service Part II: Experimental Investigation,” J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 31, pp.127–132. [CrossRef]
Ferziger, J. H. , and Peric, M. , 2002, Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Wilcox, D. C. , 2006, “ Turbulence Modeling for CFD,” DCW Industries, Flintridge, CA.
ANSYS, 2011, “ Release 14.0, ANSYS CFX–Solver Theory Guide,” ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA.
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Schlichting, H. , 1979, Boundary-Layer Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Figures

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Fig. 4

Boundary conditions for the numerical flow analysis

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Fig. 3

Basic conditions for the numerical flow analysis

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Fig. 2

Operating principle of the pilot-operated PRV

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Fig. 1

Main parts of the pilot-operated PRV: names and positions

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Fig. 5

Pressure measurement experiment: test equipment and process: (a) pressure sensor mounting position and (b) pressure measurement equipment and process

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Fig. 6

Pressure contours (mass flow rate: 0.05 kg/s): (a) orifice diameter: 3.0 mm, (b) orifice diameter: 5.2 mm, (c) orifice diameter: 6.0 mm, (d) orifice diameter: 8.0 mm, and (e) orifice diameter: 10.0 mm

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Fig. 8

Shock indicator results (mass flow rate: 0.05 kg/s): (a) shock wave occurrence zone, (b) orifice diameter: 3.0 mm, (c) orifice diameter: 5.2 mm, (d) orifice diameter: 6.0 mm, (e) orifice diameter: 8.0 mm, and (f) orifice diameter: 10.0 mm

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Fig. 9

Results of the pressure measurement experiment: (a) 0.5 MPa, (b) 1.0 MPa, (c) 1.5 MPa, and (d) 2.0 MPa

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the numerical flow analysis and experimental results for pressure

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Fig. 7

Relationship between the opening and closing forces: (a) mass flow rate: 0.05 kg/s, (b) mass flow rate: 0.10 kg/s, (c) mass flow rate: 0.15 kg/s, (d) mass flow rate: 0.20 kg/s, and (e) mass flow rate: 0.25 kg/s

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Fig. 11

Maximum y+ values

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