0
Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Stability of Open Top Cylindrical Steel Storage Tanks: Design of Top Wind Girder

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Azzuni

Lyles School of Civil Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: eazzuni@purdue.edu

S. Guzey

Lyles School of Civil Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: guzey@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 1, 2016; final manuscript received December 13, 2016; published online January 31, 2017. Assoc. Editor: David L. Rudland.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(3), 031207 (Jan 31, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1127; doi: 10.1115/1.4035507 History: Received August 01, 2016; Revised December 13, 2016

Design of the top wind stiffeners of aboveground storage tanks designed to the requirements of API 650 is investigated. The current design methodology is based on intuition and experience without a sound technical justification. This paper investigates a diameter limit to be used in the design of the top stiffener ring by using finite-element analysis (FEA) in a parametric study. Linear bifurcation analysis (LBA) and geometrically nonlinear analysis including imperfections (GNIA) were performed on cylindrical storage tanks. By modeling tanks with different diameters and limiting the design of top stiffener ring for a diameter of 170-ft (52-m), the buckling loads are investigated. It was found that the 170-ft (52-m) diameter is a suitable upper limit to design the top stiffener rings for larger diameters.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

API, 2013, “ Welded Tanks for Oil Storage,” American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, Standard No. 650.
Myers, P. E. , 1997, Aboveground Storage Tanks, McGraw-Hill, New York.
DiGrado, B. D. , and Thorp, G. A. , 1995, The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Timoshenko, S. , 1940, Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Jenkins, R. S. , 1947, Theory and Design of Cylindrical Shell Structures, O. N. Arup Group of Consulting Engineers, London.
Calladine, C. R. , 1983, Theory of Shell Structures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Zick, L. P. , and McGrath, R. V. , 1968, “ Design of Large Diameter Cylindrical Shells,” API Division of Refining, American Petroleum Institute, New York, Vol. 48, pp. 1114–1140.
Buzek, J. , 1979, “ Hoop Forces in Cylindrical Liquid Storage Tanks,” Correspondence—API Subcommittee on Pressure Vessels and Tanks, Washington, DC.
Azzuni, E. , and Guzey, S. , 2015, “ Comparison of the Shell Design Methods for Cylindrical Liquid Storage Tanks,” Eng. Struct., 101, pp. 621–630. [CrossRef]
Shih, C. F. , and Babcock, C. D. , 1987, “ Buckling of Oil Storage Tanks in SPPL Tank Farm During the 1979 Imperial Valley Earthquake,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 109(2), pp. 249–255. [CrossRef]
Zama, S. , 2004, “ Liquid Sloshing of Oil Storage Tanks and Long-Period Strong Ground Motions in the 2003 Tokachi-Oki Earthquake,” ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, San Diego, CA, July 25–29, ASME Paper No. PVP2004-3076.
Zui, H. , Shinke, T. , and Nishimura, A. , 1987, “ Experimental Studies on Earthquake Response Behavior of Cylindrical Tanks,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 109(1), pp. 50–57. [CrossRef]
Haroun, M. A. , and Housner, G. W. , 1981, “ Earthquake Response of Deformable Liquid Storage Tanks,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 48(2), pp. 411–418. [CrossRef]
Taniguchi, T. , and Katayama, Y. , 2016, “ Masses of Fluid for Cylindrical Tanks in Rock With Partial Uplift of Bottom Plate,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 138(5), p. 051301. [CrossRef]
Matsui, T. , 2009, “ Sloshing in a Cylindrical Liquid Storage Tank With a Single-Deck Type Floating Roof Under Seismic Excitation,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 131(2), p. 021303. [CrossRef]
Rish, R. F. , 1967, “ Forces in Cylindrical Chimneys Due to Wind,” ICE Proceedings, pp. 791–803.
Resinger, F. , and Greiner, R. , 1982, “ Buckling of Wind Loaded Cylindrical Shells—Application to Unstiffened and Ring-Stiffened Tanks,” Buckling of Shells, Springer, Berlin, pp. 305–331.
Pircher, M. , Guggenberger, W. , Greiner, R. , and Bridge, R. , 1998, “ Stresses in Elastic Cylindrical Shells Under Wind Load,” Thin-Walled Structures: Research and Development, University of Western Sydney, Nepean, ON, Canada, pp. 663–669.
Gorenc, B. E. , and Rotter, J. M. , 1986, “ Guidelines for the Assessment of Loads on Bulk Solids Containers,” Institution of Engineers, Australia, Working Party on Bins and Silos, Canberra, Australia.
Sabransky, I. J. , and Melbourne, W. H. , 1987, “ Design Pressure Distribution on Circular Silos With Conical Roofs,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 26(1), pp. 65–84. [CrossRef]
MacDonald, P. A. , Kwok, K. C. S. , and Holmes, J. D. , 1988, “ Wind Loads on Circular Storage Bins, Silos, and Tanks: I. Point Pressure Measurements on Isolated Structures,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 31(2–3), pp. 165–187. [CrossRef]
MacDonald, P. A. , Holmes, J. D. , and Kwok, K. C. S. , 1990, “ Wind Loads on Circular Storage Bins, Silos, and Tanks. II. Effect of Grouping,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 34(1), pp. 77–95. [CrossRef]
Uematsu, Y. , Yasunaga, J. , and Koo, C. , 2015, “ Design Wind Loads for Open-Topped Storage Tanks in Various Arrangements,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 138, pp. 77–86. [CrossRef]
Holroyd, R. J. , 1983, “ On the Behavior of Open-Topped Oil Storage Tanks in High Winds. Part I. Aerodynamic Aspects,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 12(3), pp. 329–352. [CrossRef]
Portela, G. , and Godoy, L. A. , 2005, “ Wind Pressures and Buckling of Cylindrical Steel Tanks With a Conical Roof,” J. Constr. Steel Res., 61(6), pp. 786–807. [CrossRef]
Portela, G. , and Godoy, L. A. , 2005, “ Wind Pressures and Buckling of Cylindrical Steel Tanks With a Dome Roof,” J. Constr. Steel Res., 61(6), pp. 808–824. [CrossRef]
Burgos, C. A. , Batista-Abreu, J. C. , Calabró, H. D. , Jaca, R. C. , and Godoy, L. A. , 2015, “ Buckling Estimates for Oil Storage Tanks: Effect of Simplified Modeling of the Roof and Wind Girder,” Thin-Walled Struct., 91, pp. 29–37. [CrossRef]
Jerath, S. , and Sadid, H. , 1985, “ Buckling of Orthotropic Cylinders Due to Wind Load,” J. Eng. Mech., 111(5), pp. 610–622. [CrossRef]
Burgos, C. A. , Jaca, R. C. , Lassig, J. L. , and Godoy, L. A. , 2014, “ Wind Buckling of Tanks With Conical Roof Considering Shielding by Another Tank,” Thin-Walled Struct., 84, pp. 226–240. [CrossRef]
Aghajari, S. , Abedi, K. , and Showkati, H. , 2006, “ Buckling and Post-Buckling Behavior of Thin-Walled Cylindrical Steel Shells With Varying Thickness Subjected to Uniform External Pressure,” Thin-Walled Struct., 44(8), pp. 904–909. [CrossRef]
Chen, L. , Rotter, J. M. , and Doerich, C. , 2011, “ Buckling of Cylindrical Shells With Stepwise Variable Wall Thickness Under Uniform External Pressure,” Eng. Struct., 33(12), pp. 3570–3578. [CrossRef]
Holroyd, R. J. , 1985, “ On the Behavior of Open-Topped Oil Storage Tanks in High Winds. Part II. Structural Aspects,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 18(1), pp. 53–73. [CrossRef]
Zhao, Y. , and Lin, Y. , 2014, “ Buckling of Cylindrical Open-Topped Steel Tanks Under Wind Load,” Thin-Walled Struct., 79, pp. 83–94. [CrossRef]
Uematsu, Y. , Koo, C. , and Yasunaga, J. , 2014, “ Design Wind Force Coefficients for Open-Topped Oil Storage Tanks Focusing on the Wind-Induced Buckling,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 130, pp. 16–29. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, H. , Binder, B. , and Lange, H. , 1998, “ Postbuckling Strength Design of Open Thin-Walled Cylindrical Tanks Under Wind Load,” Thin-Walled Struct., 31(1–3), pp. 203–220. [CrossRef]
Jaca, R. C. , Godoy, L. A. , Flores, F. G. , and Croll, J. G. A. , 2007, “ A Reduced Stiffness Approach for the Buckling of Open Cylindrical Tanks Under Wind Loads,” Thin-Walled Struct., 45(9), pp. 727–736. [CrossRef]
Sosa, E. M. , and Godoy, L. A. , 2010, “ Challenges in the Computation of Lower-Bound Buckling Loads for Tanks Under Wind Pressures,” Thin-Walled Struct., 48(12), pp. 935–945. [CrossRef]
Flores, F. G. , and Godoy, L. A. , 1998, “ Buckling of Short Tanks Due to Hurricanes,” Eng. Struct., 20(8), pp. 752–760. [CrossRef]
Godoy, L. A. , 2016, “ Buckling of Vertical Oil Storage Steel Tanks: Review of Static Buckling Studies,” Thin-Walled Struct., 103, pp. 1–21. [CrossRef]
Bu, F. , and Qian, C. , 2016, “ On the Rational Design of the Top Wind Girder of Large Storage Tanks,” Thin-Walled Struct., 99, pp. 91–96. [CrossRef]
Bresse, J. A. C. , 1866, Cours de Mécanique Appliquée, Professé à l’École Impériale des Ponts et Chausées, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, France.
von Mises, R. , 1931, The Critical External Pressure of Cylindrical Tubes, U.S. Experimental Model Basin, Navy Yard, Washington, DC.
Windenburg, D. F. , and Trilling, C. , 1934, “ Collapse by Instability of Thin Cylindrical Shells Under External Pressure,” Trans. ASME, 11, pp. 819–825.
McGrath, R. V. , 1963, “ Stability of API Standard 650 Tank Shells,” American Petroleum Institute, Vol. 3, pp. 458–469.
Vodenitcharova, T. , and Ansourian, P. , 1996, “ Buckling of Circular Cylindrical Shells Subject to Uniform Lateral Pressure,” Eng. Struct., 18(8), pp. 604–614. [CrossRef]
Morris, N. F. , 1996, “ SSRC: Link Between Research and Practice Shell Stability: The Long Road From Theory to Practice,” Eng. Struct., 18(10), pp. 801–806. [CrossRef]
AWWA, 1935, “ Standard Specifications for Elevated Steel Water Tanks, Standpipes and Reservoirs,” American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, Vol. 27, pp. 1606–1625.
Adams, J. H. , 1975, “ A Study of Wind Girder Requirements for Large AP1650 Floating Roof Tanks,” Refining, 40th Mid-Year Meeting, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, pp. 16–75.
Azzuni, E. , and Guzey, S. , 2016, “ A Review of the Shell Buckling and Stiffener Ring Design for Cylindrical Steel Storage Tanks,” ASME Paper No. PVP2016-63204.
BS, 2004, “ Specification for the Design and Manufacture of Site Built, Vertical, Cylindrical, Flat-Bottomed, Above Ground, Welded, Steel Tanks for the Storage of Liquids at Ambient Temperature and Above,” British Standard Institute, London, UK, Standard No. BS EN 14015.
European Committee for Standardization, 2007, “ Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures—Part 4-1: Silos,” The European Union, Brussels, Belgium.
ASME, 2010, “ ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code an International Code. Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 1,” ASME International, New York.
Blackler, M. J. , 1986, “ Stability of Silos and Tanks Under Internal and External Pressure,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW.
Ansourian, P. , 1992, “ On the Buckling Analysis and Design of Silos and Tanks,” J. Constr. Steel Res., 23(1–3), pp. 273–284. [CrossRef]
Teng, J. G. , and Rotter, J. M. , 2004, Buckling of Thin Metal Shells, Spon Press, London.
Bu, F. , and Qian, C. , 2015, “ A Rational Design Approach of Intermediate Wind Girders on Large Storage Tanks,” Thin-Walled Struct., 92, pp. 76–81. [CrossRef]
von Mises, R. , and Windenburg, D. F. , 1933, “ The Critical External Pressure of Cylindrical Tubes Under Uniform Radial and Axial Load,” DTIC Document, Washington, DC.
Tokugawa, T. , 1929, “ Model Experiments on the Elastic Stability of Closed and Cross-Stiffened Circular Cylinders Under Uniform External Pressure,” World Engineering Congress, Tokyo, Japan, Vol. 29, pp. 249–279.
AWWA, 1949, “ Standard Specifications for Elevated Steel Water Tanks, Standpipes, and Reservoirs,” American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, Vol. 41, pp. 357–396.
Young, W. C. , and Budynas, R. G. , 2002, Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Daniel, I. M. , 1960, “ Stress Analysis of a Cylindrical Shell Ring Stiffener,” ASME Paper No. 60-PET-26.
Dassault Systemes, 2013, “ ABAQUS Analysis User's Manual Version 6.13,” Dassault Systemes Simulia, Providence, RI.
Godoy, L. A. , and Flores, F. G. , 2002, “ Imperfection Sensitivity to Elastic Buckling of Wind Loaded Open Cylindrical Tanks,” Struct. Eng. Mech., 13(5), pp. 533–542. [CrossRef]
Riks, E. , 1979, “ An Incremental Approach to the Solution of Snapping and Buckling Problems,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 15(7), pp. 529–551. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Local and general buckling cases for shell subjected to uniform external pressure and to wind load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Number of lobes for failure mode of tank of t/D and L/D ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Evolution of the buckling spacing expression of cylindrical tanks under external uniform and wind pressures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Evolution of the section modulus requirements throughout the years

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Roark's ring case 8 and case 20 combined

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Different wind profile patterns

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Actual load path; shear is concentrated symmetrically in two locations only

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Cross section of ring stiffener detail (e) as per API 650[1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Wind profile as suggested by Rish [16]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Schematic elevation view of a tank with two intermediate stiffener rings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Tank with top stiffener ring only

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Tank with top stiffener ring and two intermediate stiffener rings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

GNIA results for wind speed of 90-mph (140-km/h), equivalent pressure is 0.07-psi (483-Pa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

GNIA results for wind speed of 150-mph (230-km/h), equivalent pressure is 0.195-psi (1346-Pa)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In