Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Axial Load Capacity of Cold Formed Pipe Flange Connection

[+] Author and Article Information
Jan Henriksen

Department of Engineering,
University of Agder,
Jon Lilletunsvei 9,
Grimstad 4879, Norway
e-mail: jan.henriksen@uia.no

Michael R. Hansen

Department of Engineering,
University of Agder,
Jon Lilletunsvei 9,
Grimstad 4879, Norway
e-mail: michael.r.hansen@uia.no

Fredrik Christopher Thrane

Quickflange Technology AS,
Hovedgaten 10,
Tvedestrand 4900, Norway

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 31, 2017; final manuscript received May 19, 2017; published online June 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Steve J. Hensel.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(5), 051201 (Jun 16, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1021; doi: 10.1115/1.4036853 History: Received January 31, 2017; Revised May 19, 2017

In this paper, a cold forming process is used where the connection between a pipe and a flange is created by means of radially expanding tool segments inside the pipe. The method is investigated with two purposes, to set up a robust procedure for the process that allows for connections to be made on site, and to set up finite element (FE) simulations that can capture the forces and deformations when pulling the pipe axially out of the flange. Experimental data and FE simulations are used to describe and understand the forces and deformations during the connection process. The rapid increase in radial stiffness experienced when the pipe comes in full circumferential contact with the flange is identified as the best end-of-process indicator. Also, experimental data and FE simulations are used to predict the axial load capacity of a pipe flange connection, and the FE model is utilized in designing the appropriate ridge height of the tool segments.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Henriksen, J. , and Hansen, M. R. , 2013, “ FEM Simulation of Cold Deforming Pipe Into Flange,” 26th Nordic Seminar on Computational Mechanics, Oslo, Norway, Oct. 23–25, pp. 93–96.
Henriksen, J. , Nordhagen, H. O. , Hoang, H. N. , Hansen, M. R. , and Thrane, F. C. , 2015, “ Numerical and Experimental Verification of New Method for Connecting Pipe to Flange by Cold Forming,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 220, pp. 215–223. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. F. , and Sang, Z. F. , 2005, “ Effect of Geometry of Grooves on Connection Strength of Hydraulically Expanded Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 127(4), pp. 430–435. [CrossRef]
Weddeling, C. , Woodward, S. T. , Marré, M. , Nellesen, J. , Psyk, V. , Tekkaya, A. E. , and Tillmann, W. , 2010, “ Influence of Groove Characteristics on Strength of Form-Fit Joints,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(5), pp. 925–935. [CrossRef]
Barsoum, I. , and Khalaf, A. M. , 2015, “ Evaluation of a Pipe-Flange Connection Method Based on Cold Work,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 137(6), p. 061407. [CrossRef]
Altan, T. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2012, Sheet Metal Forming Fundamentals, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Kobayashi, S. , Oh, S.-I. , and Altan, T. , 1989, Metal Forming and the Finite-Element Method (Oxford Series on Advanced Manufacturing), 1st ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.


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Fig. 3

Initial contact conditions between segment ridge and pipe

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Fig. 2

Characteristic hydraulic pressure variation during connecting process

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Fig. 1

The main components employed in the new connecting process

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Fig. 5

Main dimensions of flange connection

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Fig. 6

Test results showing PPO force versus pipe end displacement

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Fig. 7

Experimentally obtained true stress versus plastic strain corrected for tri-axial stress for the pipe and flange material

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Fig. 8

Initial geometry of segment, pipe and flange: (a) before segment expansion and (b) before the PPO process

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Fig. 9

Relationship between contact pressure and frictional shear stress

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Fig. 10

The location of mesh refinement is indicated by means of a rectangle

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Fig. 11

Deformation of pipe and flange after 22 mm pipe pull out displacement for the experimental (a) test and simulation (b)

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Fig. 16

PPO force versus pipe end displacement for different ridge heights including test

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Fig. 17

Deformation plots of pipe pull out for different ridge heights

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Fig. 18

PPO versus pipe end displacement for identical ridge heights with different pipe tolerances

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Fig. 12

Experimental and numerical results for pipe pull out force versus pipe end displacement

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Fig. 13

The ridge height, h, and the radial expansion, r, of a segment

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Fig. 14

Segment radial expansion force versus segment radial expansion for different ridge heights

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Fig. 15

Simplified free body diagrams of cone (left) and a segment (right)




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