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Research Papers: Seismic Engineering

Performance Criteria for Liquid Storage Tanks and Piping Systems Subjected to Seismic Loading

[+] Author and Article Information
Maria Vathi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Thessaly,
Volos 38334, Greece
e-mail: mvathi@mie.uth.gr

Spyros A. Karamanos

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Thessaly,
Volos 38334, Greece
e-mail: skara@mie.uth.gr;
School of Engineering,
The University of Edinburgh,
Edinburgh EH9 3FG, UK
e-mail: spyros.karamanos@ed.ac.uk

Ioannis A. Kapogiannis

Department of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens 15780, Greece
e-mail: xkapo@central.ntua.gr

Konstantinos V. Spiliopoulos

Department of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens 15780, Greece
e-mail: kvspilio@central.ntua.gr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 15, 2016; final manuscript received May 23, 2017; published online August 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Akira Maekawa.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(5), 051801 (Aug 24, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1045; doi: 10.1115/1.4036916 History: Received March 15, 2016; Revised May 23, 2017

In this paper, performance criteria for the seismic design of industrial liquid storage tanks and piping systems are proposed, aimed at introducing those industrial components into a performance-based design (PBD) framework. Considering “loss of containment” as the ultimate damage state, the proposed limit states are quantified in terms of local quantities obtained from a simple and efficient earthquake analysis. Liquid storage tanks and the corresponding principal failure modes (elephant's foot buckling, roof damage, base plate failure, anchorage failure, and nozzle damage) are examined first. Subsequently, limit states for piping systems are presented in terms of local strain at specific piping components (elbows, Tees, and nozzles) against ultimate strain capacity (tensile and compressive) and low-cycle fatigue. Modeling issues for liquid storage tanks and piping systems are also discussed, compared successfully with available experimental data, and simple and efficient analysis tools are proposed, toward reliable estimates of local strain demand. Using the above reliable numerical models, the proposed damage states are examined in two case studies: (a) a liquid storage tank and (b) a piping system, both located in areas of high seismicity.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic representation of fatigue failure of the plate–shell connection

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Fig. 2

Typical anchoring in liquid storage tanks

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Fig. 3

(a) Fracture of elbow due to low-cycle fatigue [18] and (b) local buckling of pipe elbow[52]

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Fig. 4

Simplified model for the seismic analysis of liquid storage tanks under lateral excitation X¨g(t) with no base uplifting (left) and uplifting (right) [39,41]

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Fig. 5

“Elbow-element” model for the analysis of pipe elbows

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Fig. 6

In-plane bending test of 8 in diameter pipe elbow [17,18]

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Fig. 7

Comparison between (a) experimental data [17,18] and (b) numerical results (from present simplified model) for elbow in-plane bending

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Fig. 8

(a) Simplified numerical model with shell elements for the analysis of Tee junctions and (b) out-of-plane bending test of a pipe Tee junction [17,21]

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Fig. 9

Comparison between (a) experimental [17,21] and (b) numerical results for Tee out-of-plane bending

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Fig. 10

(a) Simplified numerical model with shell elements for the analysis of tank nozzles and (b) bending test of a tank nozzle [17]

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Fig. 11

Comparison of (a) experimental data [17,20], with (b) numerical results (from the present model) for nozzle loading

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Fig. 12

Seismic ground motion from Düzce earthquake 1999; peak ground acceleration (PGA) is 0.36 g

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Fig. 13

Liquid storage tank with aspect ratio H/R  = 1.131

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Fig. 14

Time-history of the overturning moment for the anchored tank, for PGA equal to 0.50 g

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Fig. 15

Time-history of bending strains at the plate–shell connection at the “left” side of the tank for PGA equal to 0.50 g

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Fig. 16

General layout of piping system under consideration: (a) components of the piping system and (b) support locations of the piping system

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Fig. 17

Response of the critical elbow of the piping system to Düzce earthquake (PGA = 0.36 g)

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Fig. 18

Response of the critical elbow of the piping system to amplified Düzce earthquake (PGA = 0.50 g)

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