Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Burst Pressures for Toriconical Shells: Experimental and Numerical Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Błachut

Faculty of Management,
AGH University of Science and Technology,
Kraków 30-067, Poland
e-mail: em20@liverpool.ac.uk

O. Ifayefunmi

Faculty of Engineering Technology,
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,
Melaka 76100, Malaysia

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 25, 2016; final manuscript received June 4, 2017; published online August 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: David L. Rudland.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(5), 051203 (Aug 01, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1098; doi: 10.1115/1.4037043 History: Received June 25, 2016; Revised June 04, 2017

The paper describes burst pressures of eight mild steel toriconical shells and proposes a criterion for their ultimate loss of structural integrity based on true stress–strain material relationship. All test models were initially loaded by quasi-static external pressure until they buckled/collapsed. They were subsequently internally pressurized until burst. The details about the numerical process, which simulates the two-stage loading process, i.e., starting with buckling by external pressure being followed by reloading using internal pressure for up to the burst, are given. The paper concentrates on numerical procedure, which allows computation of the burst pressure using extensive plastic straining. It is shown that burst pressures based on the excessive plastic straining are closer to reality (and experiments) than those based on plastic instability.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Galletly, G. D. , Błachut, J. , and Moreton, D. N. , 1990, “ Internally-Pressurised Machined Dome Ends: A Comparison of the Plastic Buckling of Deformation and Flow Theories,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 204(3), pp. 169–186. [CrossRef]
Błachut, J. , and Galletly, G. D. , 1993, “ Influence of Local Imperfections on the Collapse Strength of Domed End Closures,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 207(3), pp. 197–207. [CrossRef]
AAIB, 1996, “AAIB Field Investigation,” Air Accident Investigation Branch, Aldershot, UK, Bulletin No. 2/96, pp. 34–39.
Gerdeen, J. C. , 1979, “ A Critical Evaluation of Plastic Behaviour Data and a Unified Definition of Plastic Loads for Pressure Components,” WRC Bull., 254, pp. 1–64.
Błachut, J. , 1995, “ Plastic Loads for Internally Pressurised Torispheres,” J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 64(2), pp. 91–100. [CrossRef]
Błachut, J. , 1997, “ Minimum Weight of Internally Pressurised Domes Subject to Plastic Load Failure,” Thin-Walled Struct., 27(2), pp. 127–146. [CrossRef]
Błachut, J. , 2005, “ Plastic Loads for Internally Pressurised Toroidal Shells,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 127(2), pp. 151–156. [CrossRef]
Błachut, J. , and Vu, V. T. , 2007, “ Burst Pressures for Torispheres and Shallow Spherical Caps,” Strain, 43(1), pp. 26–36. [CrossRef]
Updike, D. P. , and Kalnins, A. , 1994, “ Burst by Tensile Plastic Instability of Vessels With Torispherical Heads,” Recertification and Stress Classification Issues, Vol. 277, J. N. Petrinec , ed., ASME, New York, pp. 89–94.
Updike, D. P. , and Kalnins, A. , 1997, “ Ultimate Load Analysis for Design of Pressure Vessels,” ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Orlando, FL, July 27–31.
Updike, D. P. , and Kalnins, A. , 1998, “ Tensile Plastic Instability of Axisymmetric Pressure Vessels,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 120(1), pp. 6–11. [CrossRef]
Langer, B. F. , 1971, “ Design-Stress Basis for Pressure Vessels,” Exp. Mech., 11(1), pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]
Vu, V. T. , and Błachut, J. , 2009, “ Plastic Instability Pressure of Toroidal Shells,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 131(5), p. 051203. [CrossRef]
Galletly, G. D. , and Błachut, J. , 1985, “ Plastic Buckling of Short Vertical Cylindrical Shells Subjected to Horizontal Edge Shear Loads,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 107(2), pp. 101–106. [CrossRef]
Kisioglu, Y. , 2009, “ Burst Tests and Volume Expansions of Vehicle Toroidal LPG Fuel Tanks,” Turk. J. Eng. Environ. Sci., 33, pp. 117–125.
Kisioglu, Y. , 2011, “ Burst Pressure Determination of Vehicle Toroidal Oval Cross-Section LPG Fuel Tanks,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 133(3), p. 031202. [CrossRef]
Tong, R. , and Wang, X. , 1997, “ Simplified Method Based on the Deformation Theory for Structural Limit Analysis—II: Numerical Application and Investigation on Mesh Density,” J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 70(1), pp. 51–58. [CrossRef]
Wasicek, M. , Fischer, F. D. , Sabirov, I. , and Kolednik, O. , 2003, “ The Burst Pressure of a Cylindrical Vessel With a Conical Bottom and a Torispherical Head,” 10th International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology (ICPVT-10), J. L. Zeman , ed., Vienna, Austria, July 7–10, pp. 95–102.
Błachut, J. , 2014, “ Experimental Perspective on the Buckling of Pressure Vessel Components,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 66, p. 010803.
Błachut, J. , 2016, “ Buckling of Externally Pressurised Steel Toriconical Shells,” J. Pressure Vessel Piping, 144, pp. 25–34. [CrossRef]
Ling, Y. , 1996, “ Uniaxial True Stress-Strain After Necking,” AMP J. Technol., 5, pp. 37–48.
Zhang, K. S. , and Li, Z. H. , 1994, “ Numerical Analysis of the Stress-Strain Curve and Fracture Initiation for Ductile Material,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 49(2), pp. 235–241. [CrossRef]
Blachut, J. , and Sala, D. , 2017, “ Plastic Loads for Cones Subjected to Internal Pressure and Axial Tension,” ASME Paper No. PVP2017-65184.
Hibbitt, Karlsson, and Sorensen, 2006, “ ABAQUS: Theory and Standard User's Manual Version 6.3,” Hibbitt, Karlsson, and Sorensen, Inc., Pawtucket, RI.
Bushnell, D. , 1976, “ BOSOR5: Program for Buckling of Elastic-Plastic Complex Shells of Revolution Including Large Deflections and Creep,” Comput. Struct., 6(3), pp. 221–239. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry of a toriconical shell (a) and view of T2a test model embedded into the base plate and before being bolted (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Buckled toricones T1 and T1a

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Plastic strain criteria, εpu and εpf, adopted for burst pressures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Arrangements for measuring internal volume of buckled test model, T1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

View of arrangements for burst tests (a), model T2a bolted to the base plate (b), and the external tank attached to the base (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Photographs of toricone T3a: as-manufactured (a), after buckling (b), and after burst (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Test model T2a after burst/leak—side view (a). Two leak areas encircled and enlarged ((b) and (c)).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

External pressure versus the amount of expelled oil for toricone T2a

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

View of collapsed toricone T2a (a) and the FE-simulated postcollapse shape with approximately the same deformed pattern and its volume (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Distribution of equivalent plastic strains through the wall thickness at a number of internal pressure steps

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Side view of model T2a at: prestart (a) and at burst pressures ((b) and (c)). Locations of midsurface PEEQ corresponding to pprestart, ppb1, and pb2 are marked.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of computed change of internal volume with experimental data




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In