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Research Papers: Pipeline Systems

Damage Detection Through Pipe Bends

[+] Author and Article Information
Bouko Vogelaar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Eindhoven University of Technology,
Groene Loper 15,
Eindhoven 5600 MB, The Netherlands

Michael Golombok

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Eindhoven University of Technology,
Groene Loper 15,
Eindhoven 5600 MB, The Netherlands;
Shell Global Solutions International B.V.,
Kessler Park 1,
Rijswijk 2288 GS, The Netherlands
e-mail: michael.golombok@shell.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 2, 2016; final manuscript received June 9, 2017; published online August 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hardayal S. Mehta.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(5), 051701 (Aug 01, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4037120 History: Received June 02, 2016; Revised June 09, 2017

Axial pipeline defects are detectable from torsional guided wave reflections through 90 deg elbows. This paper demonstrates that detection of localized damage in carbon steel pipes with a so-called standard long and very long radius elbow is possible using a single permanently installed source–receiver pair. We use dispersion imaging to determine why this is not possible in a short radius elbow pipe. Although the remote damage is detected in a standard short radius bend pipe, there is not enough signal to detect localized damage. Since pipeline bends are normally of at least standard long radius, the acoustical behavior is similar to that previously determined in straight pipes. The reflective method can thus be applied fruitfully to monitor structural health beyond industrial pipeline bends.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic side view the bend radius ratio β = r/D of a 90 deg elbow. r is the bend radius, D is the pipe diameter, and w is the pipe wall thickness. (b) Cross section of the pipe with external damage. d is the radial damage depth, s is the circumferential extent, and φ is the angular coordinate of the removed area.

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Fig. 2

Top view (a) and photograph (b) of the experimental setup. S is source and R is receiver.

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Fig. 3

Measurements through three different bend radius ratios β = 1.0 (a), 1.5 (b), and 2.5 (c). Left-hand column: time sections, middle column: dispersion image of the direct wave, and right-hand column: dispersion image of the reflected wave. The bar is normalized to the maximum absolute amplitude.

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Fig. 4

Fraction of T(0, 1) that survives for the purposes of damage detection around bends of various magnitudes

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Fig. 5

Damage detection through three different bend radius ratios β = 1.0 (a), 1.5 (b), and 2.5 (c). Left-hand column: reference reflection from weld Rweld′ (model validation), middle column: pipe end reflection Rend′ (damage detection), and right-hand column: damage reflection Rdam′ (damage location). Vertical axes denote the difference in the reflection coefficient of the damaged pipe and the undamaged pipe. Horizontal axes denote the fractional axial extent of damage.

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