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Research Papers: Design and Analysis

Finite Element Method Stress Analysis and Evaluation of the Sealing Performance in Box-Shape Flange Gasketed Connections Subjected to Internal Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
Toshiyuki Sawa

Fellow ASME
Professor Emeritus
Graduate School of Engineering,
University of Hiroshima,
1-4-1, Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima,
Hiroshima 739-8527, Japan
e-mail: tsawa@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

Kentaro Tenma

Graduate School of Engineering,
University of Hiroshima,
1-4-1, Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima,
Hiroshima 739-8527, Japan
e-mail: m091903@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

Takashi Kobayashi

National Institute of Technology,
Numazu College,
3600 Ooka,
Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501, Japan
e-mail: kobayash@numazu-ct.ac.jp

Ryou Kurosawa

Yokogawa Electric Corporation,
155 Takamuro,
Kofu 400-8558, Yamanashi, Japan
e-mail: Ryou.Kurosawa@jp.yokogawa.com

1Present address: 2-3-2-702 Minamisuna, Koto-City, Tokyo 136-0076, Japan.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 5, 2011; final manuscript received June 24, 2017; published online August 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Hakim A. Bouzid.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(5), 051202 (Aug 01, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-11-1003; doi: 10.1115/1.4037192 History: Received January 05, 2011; Revised June 24, 2017

Bolted connections inserting gaskets such as box-shape flange connections have been widely used in mechanical structures, nuclear and chemical industry, and so on. They are usually used under internal pressure. In designing the box-shape flange connections with gaskets under internal pressure, it is important to clarify the gasket stress distribution for evaluating the sealing performance of these connections. However, no research in which the sealing performance of these connections is examined under internal pressure has been carried out. Thus, the design for box-shape connection such as thickness of flange cover, number of bolts, gasket width, and so on is not clarified. In this paper, the contact gasket stresses of these connections under internal pressure are analyzed using the finite element method (FEM), taking into account a hysteresis in the stress–displacement curve of the gasket. And then, using the contact gasket stress distributions obtained from FE analysis and the relationship between gasket stress and leak rate obtained from a gasket sealing test (JIS B2490), a method for estimating an amount of leakage is examined. Leakage tests were also conducted to measure an amount of gas leakage using an actual box-shape flange connection with a gasket. The estimated results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the effect of gasket width, flange cover thickness, and flange cover material is examined on the sealing performances of box-shape flange connections under internal pressure. The effects of the above factors are discussed on the sealing performance in designing box-shape flange connections.

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References

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Payne, J. R. , Bazergui, A. , and Leon, G. F. , 1984, “ A New Look at Gasket Factors,” Tenth International Conference on Fluid Sealing, Innsbruck, Austria, Apr. 3–5, Vol. H1, pp. 354–363.
Kobayashi, T. , Nishida, T. , Suzuki, M. , and Yamanaka, Y. , 2000, “ Leak Tightness Evaluation of Gaskets Based on Compressive Strain,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
JIS, 2008, “ Test Method for Sealing Behavior of Gaskets for Pipe Flanges,” Japanese Industrial Standard, Tokyo, Japan, Standard No. JIS B2490.
Nagata, S. , Matsumoto, M. , and Sawa, T. , 2004, “ Stress Analysis and Sealing Performance Evaluation of Pipe Flange Connections Under Internal Pressure: Effects of Scatter in Bolt Preloads,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. A, 70(699), pp. 1595–1602.
Abid, M. , and Nash, D. H. , 2004, “ A Parametric Study of Metal-to-Metal Contact Flanges With Optimized Geometry for Safe Stress and No-Leak Conditions,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 81(1), pp. 67–74. [CrossRef]
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Matsumoto, M. , and Sawa, T. , 2005, “ FEM Stress Analysis and Sealing Performance Evaluation in Pipe Flange Connections With Spiral Wound Gaskets Subjected to External Bending Moments: Case Where Internal Fluid Is Liquid,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. A, 71(704), pp. 685–691. [CrossRef]
Kikuchi, Y. , Katsuo, M. , and Sawa, T. , 2005, “ Sealing Performance in Pipe Flange Connections Combining Gasket With Adhesive Subjected to Internal Pressure and Temperature Change,” Annual Meeting of JSME/MMD, Fukuoka, Japan, Nov. 4–6, pp. 419–420.
Kurosawa, R. , Sawa, T. , and Tatsumi, Y. , 2008, “ The FEM Stress Analysis and an Evaluation of the Sealing Performance in Flexible Box-Shaped Flange Bolted Joints With Gaskets Subjected to Internal Pressure,” ASME Paper No. PVP2008-61414.

Figures

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Fig. 1

A flexible flange connection with a compressed sheet gasket subjected to internal pressure

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Fig. 2

Dimensions of the flexible flange, the cover, the compressed sheet gasket, and the bolt used in the experiments: (a) rectangular flange with 30 of the bolt pitch, (b) cover with 30 of the bolt pitch, (c) compressed sheet gasket with 30 of the bolt pitch, and (d) bolt

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Fig. 3

Measured stress–strain curves of the compressed sheet gasket used in the FEM calculations

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Fig. 4

An example of one-fourth division model used in the FEM calculations

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Fig. 5

Boundary conditions used in the FEM calculations: (a) case of initial clamping state and (b) case where an internal pressure P is applied

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Fig. 6

Relationship between the gasket stress and the leak rate in the tests (JIS B2490)

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Fig. 7

Schematic of the experimental setup of the flexible flange connection

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Fig. 8

Comparisons between the estimated and the measured results for the fundamental flange connection

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Fig. 9

The gas leakage from the interface between bolt-nut and flange-nut

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Fig. 10

The effect of the flange cover thickness on leak rate: (a) the estimated result and (b) the experimental result

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Fig. 11

The effect of the gasket width on leak rate: (a) the estimated result and (b) the experimental result

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Fig. 12

The effect of flange cover material on leak rate: (a) the estimated result and (b) the experimental result

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Fig. 13

Contour figures of the contact gasket stress distributions: (a)–(e) the initial clamping state and (a′)–(e′) the state of internal pressure applied. (a) The flange with 6 mm cover made of carbon steel and 15 mm of gasket width, (a′) the flange with 6 mm cover made of carbon steel and 15 mm of gasket width, (b) the flange with 3 mm of flange cover thickness, (b′) the flange with 3 mm of flange cover thickness, (c) the flange with 9 mm of flange cover thickness, (c′) the flange with 9 mm of flange cover thickness, (d) the flange with 20 mm of gasket width at the longer direction, (d′) the flange with 20 mm of gasket width at the longer direction, (e) the flange cover made of aluminum alloy (JIS A5052), and (e′) the flange cover made of aluminum alloy (JIS A5052).

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Fig. 14

Divided areas for calculating the amount of leakage

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