0
Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Using X-Ray Diffraction and Finite Element Method to Analyze Residual Stress of Tube-to-Tubesheet Welded Joints in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu Wan, Yun Luo

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing,
College of Chemical Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China

Wenchun Jiang

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing,
College of Chemical Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: jiangwenchun@126.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 7, 2016; final manuscript received August 1, 2017; published online August 31, 2017. Assoc. Editor: San Iyer.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(5), 051405 (Aug 31, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1232; doi: 10.1115/1.4037636 History: Received December 07, 2016; Revised August 01, 2017

A lot of failures have been generated in the tube-to-tubesheet joints of a shell and tube heat exchanger, which are greatly affected by the weld residual stresses. In order to ensure the structure integrity, it is very important to predict and decrease the residual stress in the joint between tube and tubesheet. In this paper, a combination of X-ray diffraction and finite element method (FEM) was used to analysis the residual stress distribution in the tube-to-tubesheet joints. The formation mechanism of residual stress before and after cosmetic welding was explicated. The effects of heat input and welding sequence on residual stresses were studied. The results show that the large tensile residual stresses which are in excess of yield strength, are generated in the tube-to-tubesheet joints. The residual stresses at the bottom surface and the edge of the tubesheet are relatively small even become compressive. The formation of the weld residual stress is mainly induced by the cosmetic welding rather than the back welding. The residual stresses increase as the heat input increases. The duplex welding method is recommended to decrease the residual stress.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Tan, X. , Zhu, D. , Zhou, G. , and Yang, L. , 2013, “ 3D Numerical Simulation on the Shell Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Performances of Twisted Oval Tube Heat Exchanger,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 65, pp. 244–253. [CrossRef]
Ma, T. , Chen, Y. , Zeng, M. , and Wang, Q. , 2012, “ Stress Analysis of Internally Finned Bayonet Tube in a High Temperature Heat Exchanger,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 43, pp. 101–108. [CrossRef]
Wong, J. , Sharma, S. , and Rangaiah, G. , 2016, “ Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers for Multiple Objectives Using Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm With Termination Criteria,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 93, pp. 888–899. [CrossRef]
Merah, N. , Al-Zayer, A. , Shuaib, A. , and Arif, A. , 2003, “ Finite Element Evaluation of Clearance Effect on Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint Strength,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 80(12), pp. 879–885. [CrossRef]
Bouzid, A. , Mourad, A. , and El Domiaty, A. , 2016, “ Influence of Bauschinger Effect on the Residual Contact Pressure of Hydraulically Expanded Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 146, pp. 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpvp.2016.07.002
Azevedo, C. , Neto, B. , Brandi, S. , and Tschiptschin, A. , 2008, “ Cracking of 2.25Cr–1.0Mo Steel Tube/Stationary Tube-Sheet Weldment of a Heat-Exchanger,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 15(6), pp. 695–710. [CrossRef]
Song, S. , and Dong, P. , 2016, “ A Framework for Estimating Residual Stress Profile in Seam Welded Pipe and Vessel Components—Part II: Outside of Weld Region,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 146, pp. 65–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpvp.2016.07.010
Zhu, L. , Qiao, L. , Li, X. , Xu, B. , Pan, W. , Wang, L. , and Volinsky, A. , 2013, “ Analysis of the Tube-Sheet Cracking in Slurry Oil Steam Generators,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 34, pp. 379–386. [CrossRef]
Corte, J. , Rebello, J. , Areiza, M. , Tavares, S. , and Araujo, M. , 2015, “ Failure Analysis of AISI 321 Tubes of Heat Exchanger,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 56, pp. 170–176. [CrossRef]
Allahkaram, S. , Zakersafaee, P. , and Haghgoo, S. , 2011, “ Failure Analysis of Heat Exchanger Tubes of Four Gas Coolers,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 18(3), pp. 1108–1114. [CrossRef]
Otegui, J. , and Fazzini, P. , 2004, “ Failure Analysis of Tube–Tubesheet Welds in Cracked Gas Heat Exchanger,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 11(6), pp. 903–913. [CrossRef]
Xu, S. , and Wang, W. , 2013, “ Numerical Investigation on Weld Residual Stresses in Tube to Tube Sheet Joint of a Heat Exchanger,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 101(7), pp. 37–44. [CrossRef]
Xu, S. , and Zhao, Y. , 2013, “ Using FEM to Determine the Thermo-Mechanical Stress in Tube to Tube–Sheet Joint for the SCC Failure Analysis,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 34(6), pp. 24–34. [CrossRef]
Tait, R. , and Press, J. , 2001, “ An Experimental Study of the Residual Stresses, and Their Alleviation, in Tube to Tube-Sheet Welds of Industrial Boilers,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 8(1), pp. 15–27. [CrossRef]
Al-Badour, F. , Merah, N. , Shuaib, A. , and Bazoune, A. , 2014, “ Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Welded Tube-Tubesheet Joint,” ASME Paper No. PVP2014-28488.
Wei, X. , Qian, Y. , Wang, J. , Zhou, J. , and Ling, X. , 2014, “ Effect of Different Welded Structures on Mechanical Properties of TA2 Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 136(4), p. 041403. [CrossRef]
Wei, X. , and Ling, X. , 2015, “ Investigation of Welded Structures on Mechanical Properties of 304L Welded Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 52, pp. 90–96. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. , Sang, Z. , and Widera, G. , 2007, “ Connection Strength and Tightness of Hydraulically Expanded Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 194(1), pp. 93–99. [CrossRef]
Ma, H. , Yu, H. , Qian, C. , Liu, Z. , and Zhou, J. , 2015, “ Experimental Study of Hydraulically Expanded Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers,” Pro. Eng., 130, pp. 263–274. [CrossRef]
Han, X. , Tan, J. , Wang, R. , and Yin, W. , 2015, “ A Study on Welding Residual Stress in Elliptical Tube to Tube Sheet Joint of a Phthalic Anhydride Switch Condenser,” Pro. Eng., 130, pp. 544–551. [CrossRef]
Haneklaus, N. , Reuven, R. , Cionea, C. , Hosemann, P. , and Peterson, P. , 2016, “ Tube Expansion and Diffusion Bonding of 316L Stainless Steel Tube-to-Tube Sheet Joints Using a Commercial Roller Tube Expanded,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 234, pp. 27–32. [CrossRef]
Shuaib, A. , Duffuaa, O. , Merah, N. , Al-Nassar, Y. , Duffuaa, O. , and Al-Nassar, Y. , 2011, “ Residual Stresses in Roller Expanded Tube-Tubesheet Joints With Large Initial Clearance and Grooves,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 133(5), p. 051211. [CrossRef]
Williams, D. , 2003, “ Predictions of Residual Stresses in the Mechanical Roll Expansion of HX Tubes Into TEMA Grooves,” ASME Paper No. PVP2003-1937.
Schajer, G. , 2013, Practical Residual Stress Measurement Methods, Wiley, Chichester, UK. [CrossRef]
Zheng, X. , Li, J. , and Zhou, Y. , 2004, “ X-ray Diffraction Measurement of Residual Stress in PZT Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Acta. Mater., 52(11), pp. 3313–3322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2004.02.047
Gou, R. , Zhang, Y. , Xu, X. , Sun, L. , and Yang, Y. , 2011, “ Residual Stress Measurement of New and In-Service X70 Pipelines by X-Ray Diffraction Method,” Ndt E Int., 44(5), pp. 387–393. [CrossRef]
Bae, H. , Kim, Y. , Kim, J. , Lee, S. , Lee, K. , and Park, C. , 2013, “ Three-Dimensional Finite Element Welding Residual Stress Analysis of Penetration Nozzles: I—Sensitivity of Analysis Variables,” Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping, 114–115, pp. 1–15.
Goldak, J. , Chakravarti, A. , and Bibby, M. , 1984, “ A New Finite Element Model for Welding Heat Sources,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 15(2), pp. 299–305. [CrossRef]
Mitra, A. , Prasad, N. , and Ram, G. , 2015, “ Estimation of Residual Stresses in an 800 mm Thick Steel Submerged Arc Weldment,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 229, pp. 181–190. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. , Xu, X. , and Tu, S. , 2012, “ Influence of Repair Length on Residual Stress in the Repair Weld of a Clad Plate,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 246(4), pp. 211–219. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. , Luo, Y. , Wang, B. Y. , Tu, S. T. , and Gong, J. , 2014, “ Residual Stress Reduction in the Penetration Nozzle Weld Joint by Overlay Welding,” Mater. Des., 60, pp. 443–450. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. , and Guan, X. , 2013, “ A Study of the Residual Stress and Deformation in the Welding Between Half-Pipe Jacket and Shell,” Mater. Des, 43, pp. 213–219. [CrossRef]
Deng, D. , and Kiyoshima, S. , 2010, “ FEM Prediction of Welding Residual Stresses in a SUS304 Girth-Welded Pipe With Emphasis on Stress Distribution Near Weld Start/End Location,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 50(2), pp. 612–621. [CrossRef]
Jiang, W. , Luo, Y. , Wang, B. Y. , Woo, W. , and Tu, S. , 2015, “ Neutron Diffraction Measurement and Numerical Simulation to Study the Effect of Repair Depth on Residual Stress in 316L Stainless Steel Repair Weld,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 137(4), p. 041406. [CrossRef]
Muránsky, O. , Hamelin, C. J. , Patel, V. , Luzin, V. , and Braham, C. , 2015, “ The Influence of Constitutive Material Models on Accumulated Plastic Strain in Finite Element Weld Analyses,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 69–70, pp. 518–530. [CrossRef]
Katsuyama, J. , Tobita, T. , Into, H. , and Onizawa, K. , 2012, “ Effect of Welding Conditions on Residual Stress and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior at Butt-Welding Joints of Stainless Steel Pipes,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 134(2), p. 021403. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometrical model: (a) 3D model of the sample and (b) the dimension of the sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional macrostructure of the tube-to-tube sheet joint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

X-Ray diffraction experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The double ellipsoidal heat source model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The comparison of FE results and experimental results along P1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The residual stress contours of σx (a) and σy (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The residual stress distribution along P2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The residual stress distribution along P3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The contours of residual stress around the weld root before and after cosmetic welding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The comparison of residual stress in the weld root before and after cosmetic welding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effect of welding sequence on the maximum of residual stress on the weld surface (a) and the weld root (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effect of heat input on the maximum of residual stress on the weld surface (a) and the weld root (b)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In