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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Using X-Ray Diffraction and Finite Element Method to Analyze Residual Stress of Tube-to-Tubesheet Welded Joints in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu Wan, Yun Luo

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing,
College of Chemical Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China

Wenchun Jiang

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing,
College of Chemical Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao 266580, China
e-mail: jiangwenchun@126.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 7, 2016; final manuscript received August 1, 2017; published online August 31, 2017. Assoc. Editor: San Iyer.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(5), 051405 (Aug 31, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1232; doi: 10.1115/1.4037636 History: Received December 07, 2016; Revised August 01, 2017

A lot of failures have been generated in the tube-to-tubesheet joints of a shell and tube heat exchanger, which are greatly affected by the weld residual stresses. In order to ensure the structure integrity, it is very important to predict and decrease the residual stress in the joint between tube and tubesheet. In this paper, a combination of X-ray diffraction and finite element method (FEM) was used to analysis the residual stress distribution in the tube-to-tubesheet joints. The formation mechanism of residual stress before and after cosmetic welding was explicated. The effects of heat input and welding sequence on residual stresses were studied. The results show that the large tensile residual stresses which are in excess of yield strength, are generated in the tube-to-tubesheet joints. The residual stresses at the bottom surface and the edge of the tubesheet are relatively small even become compressive. The formation of the weld residual stress is mainly induced by the cosmetic welding rather than the back welding. The residual stresses increase as the heat input increases. The duplex welding method is recommended to decrease the residual stress.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Geometrical model: (a) 3D model of the sample and (b) the dimension of the sample

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Fig. 2

Cross-sectional macrostructure of the tube-to-tube sheet joint

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Fig. 3

X-Ray diffraction experiment

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Fig. 5

The double ellipsoidal heat source model

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Fig. 6

The comparison of FE results and experimental results along P1

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Fig. 7

The residual stress contours of σx (a) and σy (b)

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Fig. 8

The residual stress distribution along P2

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Fig. 9

The residual stress distribution along P3

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Fig. 10

The contours of residual stress around the weld root before and after cosmetic welding

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Fig. 11

The comparison of residual stress in the weld root before and after cosmetic welding

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Fig. 12

Effect of welding sequence on the maximum of residual stress on the weld surface (a) and the weld root (b)

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Fig. 13

Effect of heat input on the maximum of residual stress on the weld surface (a) and the weld root (b)

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