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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Elastic and Plastic Microscopic Undulation on the Surface of Polycrystalline Pure Titanium Under Tension

[+] Author and Article Information
Naoya Tada

Professor
Mem. ASME
Graduate School of Natural Science
and Technology,
Okayama University,
3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Kita-ku,
Okayama 700-8530, Japan
e-mail: tada@okayama-u.ac.jp

Takeshi Uemori

Graduate School of Natural Science and
Technology,
Okayama University,
3-1-1 Tsushimanaka,
Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
e-mail: uemori@okayama-u.ac.jp

Toshiya Nakata

Graduate School of Natural Science and
Technology,
Okayama University,
3-1-1 Tsushimanaka, Kita-ku,
Okayama 700-8530, Japan
e-mail: tnakata@okayama-u.ac.jp

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 4, 2016; final manuscript received July 31, 2017; published online October 19, 2017. Editor: Young W. Kwon.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(6), 061403 (Oct 19, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-16-1184; doi: 10.1115/1.4038012 History: Received October 04, 2016; Revised July 31, 2017

Commercial pure titanium has been widely used in the aerospace, chemical, and biomedical industries because of its light weight, high corrosion resistance, high strength, high heat resistance, and good biocompatibility. Pure titanium takes the form of a hexagonal closed-pack structure with anisotropic elasticity and plasticity, with most of its components being polycrystalline aggregates having different crystal orientations. Small mechanical loading under elastic conditions therefore always induces inhomogeneous microscopic deformation, and the resulting inhomogeneity brings about various defects such as inhomogeneous plastic deformation, microcracking, and necking. It is therefore important to investigate the microscopic inhomogeneous deformation under elastic and plastic conditions. In this study, a plate specimen of commercial pure titanium was subjected to a tensile test on the stage of a digital holographic microscope (DHM), and the microscopic deformation of grains in the specimen under elastic and plastic conditions were observed and measured. During the test, the grains’ height distribution was measured in a fixed area on the specimen’s surface at each tensile loading step, and the correlation between height distributions at different loads was examined. We found from the measurements that each grain shows a different height change even under elastic conditions with a small load. This inhomogeneous height change was enhanced as the load was increased to plastic conditions. A strong correlation between the height changes under elastic and plastic conditions was also found. This result suggests that the microscopic deformation experienced under plastic conditions is predictable from that observed under elastic conditions.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Shape and size of the plate specimen. x-axis is the loading direction.

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Fig. 2

Measurement area on the specimen surface after the tensile test. Squares show areas for evaluation of average height of grains.

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Fig. 3

Nominal stress–nominal strain diagram. Numerals in squares indicate the number of loading steps.

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Fig. 4

Optical microscopy image of grains after the tensile test: (a) grain 2, (b) grain 6, (c) grain 11, (d) grain 17, and (e) grain 20

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Fig. 5

Change in height distribution of grains (101 × 101 pixels)

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Fig. 6

Change in the average height of grains with changing load. Numerals in squares indicate the number of loading steps.

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Fig. 7

Increase in height in the square area of grains (21 × 21 pixels for grains 2, 6, 11, and 20; 11 × 11 pixels for grain 17)

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Fig. 8

Relationship between the average height change under a unit load within different loading ranges: (a) elastic (abscissa) and elastic (ordinate) relation and (b) elastic (abscissa) and plastic (ordinate) relation

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Fig. 9

Height change of surface grains under elastic loading

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Fig. 10

Similarity of elastic and plastic deformations of grains in the two cases

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