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Research Papers: NDE

Experimental Evaluation of Novel Hybrid Microwave/Ultrasonic Technique to Locate and Characterize Pipe Wall Thinning

[+] Author and Article Information
Wissam M. Alobaidi

Systems Engineering Department,
Donaghey College of Engineering and
Information Technology,
University of Arkansas at Little Rock,
Little Rock, AR 72204
e-mail: wmalobaidi@ualr.edu

Clifford E. Kintner

Electrical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville, AR, 72701
e-mail: kintner@uark.edu

Entidhar A. Alkuam

Department of Physics and Astronomy,
College of Arts, Letters, and Sciences,
University of Arkansas at Little Rock,
Little Rock, AR 72204
e-mail: eaalkuam@ualr.edu

Kota Sasaki

Department of Quantum Science
and Energy Engineering,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Tohoku University,
Sendai 980–8579, Miyagi, Japan
e-mail: ksasa@karma.qse.tohoku.ac.jp

Noritaka Yusa

Department of Quantum Science
and Energy Engineering,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Tohoku University,
Sendai 980–8579, Miyagi, Japan
e-mail: noritaka.yusa@qse.tohoku.ac.jp

Hidetoshi Hashizume

Department of Quantum Science
and Energy Engineering,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Tohoku University,
Sendai 980–8579, Miyagi, Japan
e-mail: hidetoshi.hashizume@qse.tohoku.ac.jp

Eric Sandgren

Systems Engineering Department,
Donaghey College of Engineering and
Information Technology,
University of Arkansas at Little Rock,
Little Rock, AR 72204
e-mail: exsandgren@ualr.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 9, 2017; final manuscript received November 14, 2017; published online December 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Steve J. Hensel.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(1), 011501 (Dec 01, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4038517 History: Received May 09, 2017; Revised November 14, 2017

Research using microwaves (MWs) to detect pipe wall thinning (PWT) distinguishes the presence of wall thinning, but does not accurately locate the discontinuities. Ultrasonic testing (UT) is capable of accurately locating the PWT defect, but cannot do so without time-consuming linear scanning. This novel work combines the MW technique as a way to predict the location of a series of PWT specimens, and the UT technique as a way to characterize the PWT specimens in terms of location, depth, and profile shape. The UT probe is guided to the predicted location derived from the Phase One MW results, generating the Phase Two results to determine accurate location, depth measurement, and profile shape detection. The work uses the previously successful experimental setup for testing of an aluminum pipe with 154.051 mm inner diameter (ID) and 1 m length. A vector network analyzer (VNA) generates a MW sweeping frequency range of 1.4–2.3 GHz. This signal is propagated within reference pipes with both open end and short-circuit configurations for calibration of the system. The calibrated system is used to detect the presence and location of six PWT specimens, with two profile shapes, at three depths of thinning and three locations along the pipe. The predicted locations from Phase One are then used to guide a calibrated, manually guided straight beam UT probe to the predicted position. From that point, the UT probe is used in order to accurately localize and determine the depth and shape profile of the specimens.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy pipe used for the study

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Fig. 2

Design drawing of the standard ring showing dimensions and structural fitting

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Fig. 3

Design drawings of the shapes of PWT showing shape and dimension of the groove

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Fig. 4

Design drawings for the cap fabrication showing all dimensions

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Fig. 5

Experimental setup for short-circuited case used to calibrate the group velocity of the waveguide with inner diameter of 154.051 mm and 1000 mm length

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Fig. 6

Experimental setup for the end location for PWT specimens. Here, the specimen ring is located at approximately 5/6 the length of the reference pipe from the ellipsoidal cap.

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Fig. 7

(a) The calibration of the UT straight beam probe to the 1″ block (25.4 mm), (b) the calibration for the 0.2″ block (5.08 mm), (c) the calibration block to cover the range of all possible measurements in the experiment, and (d) the ultrasonic couplant bottle

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Fig. 8

Results in PUT of 1 m plus 0.0508 m

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Fig. 9

Experimental result for rectangular shape PWT specimens FR6, 4, and 2. Placed at the front location of the pipe, with the group velocity method applied to the raw MW reflection data.

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Fig. 10

Experimental data for the reflection MW signals from the probe and cap for specimens FR6, 4, and 2

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Fig. 11

The first three reflections according to the PWT specimens FR6, 4, and 2 peaks, with TOF ranging from 4.83125 ns to 4.96875 ns

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Fig. 12

Experimental result for the PWT specimens FC6, 4, and 2, semicircular shape at the front location, after the group velocity method is applied to the MW reflection data

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Fig. 13

Reflected experimental MW signal data from the probe and cap for samples FC6, 4, and 2

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Fig. 14

Reflection peaks from the PWT samples FC6, 4, and 2, showing TOF ranging from 4.83125 ns to 5.0375 ns

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Fig. 15

The experimental data for PWT samples MR6, 4, and 2, with TOF ranging from 8.3375 ns to 8.475 ns. The waveforms for the three depths of PWT samples are shown very clearly in circle D-6.

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Fig. 16

Experimental result showing the disruption peaks in circles D-9 and D-10, caused because PWT is near end of pipe. The range of TOF is 13.35625 ns to 13.425 ns.

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Fig. 17

Microwave detection location prediction data points are shown falling into sequence for phase one. Shown are probe positions and relative movement, the UT techniques to be applied in order to characterize the shape and size of the PWT, in phase two.

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Fig. 18

Microwave experimental detection results for six PWT specimens (rectangular and semicircular) located at the middle position in the pipe. The predicted locations are shifting from the middle of the pipe to this range: 595 mm to 625 mm from the port.

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Fig. 19

Experimental prediction results for phase one. It is clear that there is disruption in the sequence of predicted locations, due to the PWT samples being located near the end of the pipe.

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Fig. 20

Experimental results of straight-beam ultrasonic using the dual probe with 15 mm diam. crystal. This shows the detection of rectangular PWT at three depths: 5.08 mm, 10.16 mm, and 15.24 mm, with comparison to the DDO (actual known DDO, from fabrication).

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Fig. 21

Experimental results from the same procedure as shown in Fig. 20. This is for semicircular PWT at the same three depths: 5.08 mm, 10.16 mm, and 15.24 mm, with comparison to the DDO to five trial tests by dual straight beam UT probe.

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Fig. 22

(a) The rectangular PWT test 15.24 mm depth correctly, DDO = 2.97 mm; (b) the same rectangular specimen with 10% variation; (c) testing of the middle of the semicircular PWT; and (d) the probe placed left of middle on the same specimen

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