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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Development of a Model for Hydrogen-Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth of Pipeline Steel1

[+] Author and Article Information
Robert L. Amaro

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alabama,
401 7th Avenue,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487
e-mail: Robert.amaro67@gmail.com

Ryan M. White

Applied Chemicals and Materials Division,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
325 Broadway m/s 647,
Boulder, CO 80305
e-mail: Ryan.white@nist.gov

Chris P. Looney

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Colorado School of Mines,
1812 Illinois Street,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: clooney@mymail.mines.edu

Elizabeth S. Drexler

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Applied Chemicals and Materials Division,
325 Broadway m/s 647,
Boulder, CO 80305
e-mail: elizabeth.drexler@nist.gov

Andrew J. Slifka

Mem. ASME
Applied Chemicals and Materials Division,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
325 Broadway m/s 647,
Boulder, CO 80305
e-mail: andrew.slifka@nist.gov

1Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, an agency of the U.S. government, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 31, 2017; final manuscript received November 14, 2017; published online February 5, 2018. Editor: Young W. Kwon.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(2), 021403 (Feb 05, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1066; doi: 10.1115/1.4038824 History: Received March 31, 2017; Revised November 14, 2017

Hydrogen has been proposed as a potential partial solution to the need for a clean-energy economy. In order to make this a reality, large-scale hydrogen transportation networks need to be engineered and installed. Steel pipelines are the most likely candidate for the required hydrogen transportation network. One historical barrier to the use of steel pipelines to transport hydrogen was a lack of experimental data and models pertaining to the fatigue response of steels in gaseous hydrogen. Extensive research at NIST has been performed in conjunction with the ASME B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipeline committee to fill this need. After a large number of fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests were performed in gaseous hydrogen, a phenomenological model was created to correlate the applied loading conditions, geometry, and hydrogen pressure to the resultant hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth (HA-FCG) response of the steels. As a result of this extensive data set, and a simplification of the above-mentioned phenomenological model, the ASME B31.12 code was modified to enable the use of higher strength steels without penalty, thereby resulting in the potential for considerable installation cost savings. This paper details the modeling effort that led to the code change.

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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

HA-FCG data collected at NIST on X52 and X70 steels showing the large increase in FCGR for tests in hydrogen at both 5.5 MPa and 34 MPa, compared to tests in air. All data generated at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

HA-FCG data collected at NIST on X52, X70, and X100 steels with a SMYS between 358 MPa and 689 MPa at hydrogen pressures between 1.7 MPa and 34.5 MPa. All data generated at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Representative HA-FCG data of four different API pipeline steels at differing hydrogen pressures, all at 1 Hz: (a) X100, (b) X52 Alloy J, (c) X70A, and (d) X70B. All data generated at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Typical HA-FCG results of API X100 steel delineated into three regions: A, B, and C. All data generated at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fatigue-crack surfaces for three materials tested in gaseous hydrogen (frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5). The left pictures are of region A, the middle pictures are of region B, and the right pictures are of region C for all materials.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

HA-FCG data for X100 tested in air and three hydrogen pressures superimposed with six times the magnitude of the per-cycle size of the Irwin FPZ as a function of ΔK. All data generated at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Exaggerated view of: (a) crack growth per cycle as it occurs within the FPZ of that cycle and the associated region of stress-assisted hydrogen concentration resulting in the transient HA-FCG regime (region B). (b) Crack growth per cycle extending beyond the FPZ of that cycle resulting in the steady-state HA-FCG regime (region C). Fatigue crack shown as emanating from the specimen precrack, and the FPZ shown as a shaded circle for simplicity. Figure 7 depicts a single cycle of crack extension and the associated FPZ occurring at that instance. Each additional cycle will have a new FPZ location associated with the crack tip location at that time.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Three linear trends superimposed upon the HA-FCG of X100 steel. All data generated at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) HA-FCG data of API-X100 steel tested in air and three hydrogen pressures, (b) model prediction of the data provided in (a). Data and predictions for frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Simplified fits created by use of API X52 data tested at 1 Hz, R = 0.5, in 5.5 MPa gaseous hydrogen. (a) Provides the results of a simple fitting of the three regions as if independent, while (b) shows the results of enabling a weighting of the three linear fits to more closely match experimental data. Pseudo code for each method is provided in the Appendix.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Implementation of the upper bound of the data to the HA-FCG model as requested by the ASME B31.12 code committee. Data and predictions for a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

HA-FCG test results as a function of the material microstructure. PF = polygonal ferrite, AF = acicular ferrite, B = bainite, P = pearlite, XX = all secondary potential constituents. All data generated at a frequency of 1 Hz and R = 0.5.

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