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Technical Brief: Technical Briefs

The Drag Crisis and Thermowell Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Dave Bartran

Mem. ASME
e-mail: dbartran@primary.net

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 1, 2018; final manuscript received March 31, 2018; published online May 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Tomomichi Nakamura.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(4), 044501 (May 10, 2018) (3 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1002; doi: 10.1115/1.4039882 History: Received January 01, 2018; Revised March 31, 2018

Documented thermowell failures designed to PTC 19.3TW and earlier, when evaluated with the drag crisis invoked, reveals the potential for enhanced reliability of the current standard in reducing the risk of failure. The code calculation remains largely intact apart from a conservative Strouhal number in conjunction with Reynolds number criteria marking the onset and terminus of the drag crisis.

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References

Heffner, R. E. , Gleave, S. W. , and Norberg, J. A. , 1962, “SPERT III Thermowell Failure and Replacement,” Atomic Energy Corp. Research and Development, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID, Report No. IDO-16741.
Marten, W. F. , 1973, “Thermowell Failure at Sodium Components Test Installation (SCTI),” Atomic Energy Corp. Research and Development, Report No. LDO-TDR-73-4.
Off-Gas Temperature Measurement Case, 1984, Private Communication.
Permana, Y. , 1995, “Thermowell Failure as a Result of Vortex Shedding Phenomena,” 19th Annual Meeting of Vibration Institute, Indianapolis, IN, June 20–22, pp. 55–59.
Eckert, B. , 2010, “Centrifugal Compressor Case Study,” Gas Machinery Conference, Phoenix, AZ, Oct. 4–6, pp. 1–13. http://www.betamachinery.com/assets/pdfs/Technical_Articles/Centrifugal_Compressor_Case_Study.pdf
SIGTTO, 2011, “Thermowells in LNG Carrier Liquid Lines,” The Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO), London, Report. http://www.sigtto.org/media/7229/thermowells-in-lng-carrier-liquid-lines.pdf
El Batahgry, A. M. , and Fathy, G. , 2013, “Fatigue Failure of Thermowells in Feed Gas Supply Downstream Pipeline at a Natural Gas Production Plant,” Case Stud. Eng. Failure Anal., 1(2), pp. 79–84. [CrossRef]
Brock, J. E. , 1974, “Stress Analysis of Thermowells,” Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, Report No. NPS-59B074112A. https://calhoun.nps.edu/bitstream/handle/10945/31886/stressanalysisof55broc.pdf?sequence=1
ASME, 1974, “Thermowells—Performance Test Codes,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, Standard No. ASME PTC 19.3.
ASME, 2016, “Thermowells—Performance Test Codes,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, Standard No. ASME PTC 19.3TW. https://www.asme.org/products/codes-standards/ptc-193-tw-2016-thermowells
Kawamura, T. , Nakao, T. , Hashi, M. , and Murayama, K. , 2001, “Strouhal Number Effect on Synchronized Vibration of a Circular Cylinder in Cross Flow,” JSME Ser. B, 44(4), pp. 729–737. [CrossRef]
Rice, S. O. , 1944, “Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., 23(3), pp. 282–332. [CrossRef]
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Blevins, R. D. , and Burton, T. E. , 1976, “Fluid Forces Induced by Vortex Shedding,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 98(1), pp. 19–24. [CrossRef]
Jacquot, R. G. , 2000, “Random Vibration of Damped Modified Beam Systems,” J. Sound Vib., 234(3), pp. 441–454. [CrossRef]
Kawamura, T. , Nakao, T. , Takahashi, M. , Hayashi, T. , Murayama, K. , and Gotoh, N. , 2003, “Synchronized Vibrations of a Circular Cylinder in Cross Flow at Supercritical Reynolds Numbers,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 125(1), pp. 97–108. [CrossRef]
Bartran, D. , 2015, “Support Flexibility and Natural Frequencies of Pipe Mounted Thermowells,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 137(4), p. 041201. [CrossRef]
Fung, Y. C. , 1960, “Fluctuating Lift and Drag Acting on a Cylinder in a Flow at Supercritical Reynolds Numbers,” J. Aerosp. Sci., 27(11), pp. 801–814. [CrossRef]
Schewe, G. , 1983, “On the Force Fluctuations Acting on a Circular Cylinder in Crossflow From Subcritical Up to Transcritical Reynolds Numbers,” J. Fluid Mech., 133(1), pp. 265–285. [CrossRef]
Botterill, N. , 2010, “Fluid Structure Interaction Modelling of Cables Used in Civil Engineering Structures,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/11657/

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Apparent Strouhal No. of the reported failures [17], based on the maximum fluid velocity, tip diameter, and the fluid properties, with representative Strouhal variations [10,11,18,19] for comparison.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

With the drag crisis included it is clear why this design lasted less than 100 h in service, as might be expected

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flow-induced resonance is very likely during startup and normal operation when the drag crisis is included, while the rating according to [10], without increased Strouhal number, is nearly double the maximum flow capacity of the pumps

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