0
Research Papers: SPECIAL SECTION PAPERS

Observational Seismic Fragility Curves for Steel Cylindrical Tanks

[+] Author and Article Information
Marta D'Amico

Mem. ASME
Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental,
and Material Engineering (DICAM),
University of Bologna,
Viale Risorgimento 2,
Bologna 40136, Italy
e-mail: marta.damico3@unibo.it

Nicola Buratti

Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental,
and Material Engineering (DICAM),
University of Bologna,
Viale Risorgimento 2,
Bologna 40136, Italy
e-mail: nicola.buratti@unibo.it

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 30, 2017; final manuscript received April 30, 2018; published online December 14, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Fabrizio Paolacci.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(1), 010904 (Dec 14, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1242; doi: 10.1115/1.4040137 History: Received November 30, 2017; Revised April 30, 2018

The evaluation of seismic vulnerability of atmospheric above ground steel storage tanks is a fundamental topic in the context of industrial safety. Depending on the shell portion affected, on the extent of damage, and on toxicity, flammability, and reactivity of stored substances, liquid leakages can trigger hazardous chains of events whose consequences affect not only the plant but also the surrounding environment. In light of that, the study proposed herein provides an analysis of the seismic fragility of cylindrical above ground storage tanks based on observational damage data. The first phase of this work has consisted in collecting a large empirical dataset of information on failures of atmospheric tanks during past earthquakes. Two sets of damage states have then been used in order to characterize the severity of damage and the intensity of liquid releases. Empirical fragility curves have been fitted by using Bayesian regression. The advantage of this approach is that it is well suited to treat direct and indirect information obtained from field observations and to incorporate subjective engineering judgement. Different models have been employed in order to investigate the effects of tank aspect ratio, filling level, and base anchorage. Moreover, the effects of interaction between these critical aspects are included in fragility analysis. The hazard parameter used is the peak ground acceleration (PGA). Seismic fragility curves obtained from the described procedure are compared to those available in the technical literature.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Cooper, T. W. , 1997, “ A Study of the Performance of Petroleum Storage Tanks During Earthquakes,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, Report No. GCR 97-720. https://nehrpsearch.nist.gov/static/files/NIST/PB99132896.pdf
Hashimoto, P. , and Tiong, L. , 1989, Earthquake Experience Data on Anchored, Ground-Mounted Vertical Storage Tanks, EQE Engineering, Costa Mesa, CA.
Haroun, M. , 1983, “ Behavior of Unanchored Oil Storage Tank: Imperial Valley Earthquake,” J. Tech. Top. Civ. Eng. ASCE, 109(2), pp. 23–40.
Hatayama, K. , 2008, “ Lessons From the 2003 Tokachi-Oki, Japan, Earthquake for Prediction of Long-Period Strong Ground Motions and Sloshing Damage to Oil Storage Tanks,” J. Seismol., 12(2), pp. 255–263. [CrossRef]
Yazici, G. , and Cili, F. , 2008, “ Evaluation of the Liquid Storage Tank Failures in the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake,” 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, Oct. 12–17, p. 8. http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/14_01-1029.pdf
Mitchell, D. , and Tinawi, R. , 1992, “ Structural Damage Due to the April 22, 1991, Costa Rican Earthquake,” Can. J. Civ. Eng., 19(4), pp. 586–605. [CrossRef]
ASCE, 1987, The Effects of Earthquakes on Power and Industrial Facilities and Implications for Nuclear Power Plant Design, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Johnston, R. L. , 1955, “ Earthquake Damage to Oil Fields and to the Paloma Cycling Plant in the San Joaquin Valley,” Earthquake in Kern County California during 1952, Bulletin 171, pp. 221–226.
Peers, J. A. , 1955, “ Damage to Electrical Equipment Caused By Arvin-Tehachapi Earthquake,” Earthquake in Kern County California during 1952, Bulletin 171, pp. 237–240.
Durukal, E. , and Erdik, M. , 2008, “ Physical and Economic Losses Sustained by the Industry in the 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey Earthquake,” Nat. Hazards., 46(2), pp. 153–178. [CrossRef]
Girgin, S. , 2011, “ The Natech Events During the 17 August 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake: Aftermath and Lessons Learned,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11(4), pp. 1129–1140. [CrossRef]
Zama, S. , Nishi, H. , Hatayama, K. , Yamada, M. , Yoshihara, H. , and Ogawa, Y. , 2012, “ On Damage of Oil Storage Tanks Due to the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0),” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (WCEE), Lisboa, Japan, Sept. 24–28, Paper No. WCEE2012_0238. http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/WCEE2012_0238.pdf
Haroun, M. A. , 1980, “ Dynamic Analysis of Liquid Storage Tanks,” California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, Research Report No. EERL 80-04.
Haroun, A. M. , and Housner, G. W. , 1981, “ Earthquake Response of Deformable Liquid Storage Tanks,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 48(2), pp. 411–418. [CrossRef]
Veletsos, A. S. , and Tang, Y. , 1987, “ Rocking Response of Liquid Storage Tanks,” J. Eng. Mech., 113(11), pp. 1774–1794.
Veletsos, A. S. , 1984, “ Seismic Response and Design of Liquid Storage Tanks,” Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp. 255–370.
Veletsos, A. S. , 1990, “ Seismic Response of Anchored Steel Tanks,” Third Symposium on Current Issues Related to Nuclear Power Plant Structures, Equipment and Piping, Raleigh, NC, pp. 2–15.
Malhotra, P. K. , 2000, “ Practical Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Tanks,” Earthq. Spectra, 16(2), pp. 473–492. [CrossRef]
Fischer, F. D. , Rammerstorfer, F. G. , and Scharf, K. , 1990, “ Storage Tanks Under Earthquake Loading,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 43(11), pp. 261–499. [CrossRef]
Hunt, B. , and Priestley, M. N. J. , 1978, “ Seismic Water Waves in a Storage Tank,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 68(2), pp. 487–499.
Virella, J. C. , Godoy, L. A. , and Suarez, L. E. , 2006, “ Dynamic Buckling of Anchored Steel Tanks Subjected to Horizontal Earthquake Excitation,” J. Constr. Steel Res., 62(6), pp. 521–531. [CrossRef]
Angelis, M. D. , Giannini, M. , and Paolacci, F. , 2010, “ Experimental Investigation on the Seismic Response of a Steel Liquid Storage Tank Equipped With Floating Roof by Shaking Table Tests,” Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 39(4), pp. 377–396.
Housner, G. W. , 1963, “ The Dynamic Behavior of Water Tanks,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 53(2), pp. 381–387.
O'Rourke, M. J. , and So, P. , 2000, “ Seismic Fragility Curves for on-Grade Steel Tanks,” Earthq. Spectra., 16(4), pp. 801–815. [CrossRef]
American Lifelines Alliance, 2001, “ Seismic Fragility Formulation For Water Systems—Part 1: Guideline,” American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp. 1–96. https://www.americanlifelinesalliance.com/pdf/Part_1_Guideline.pdf
American Lifelines Alliance, 2001, “ Seismic Fragility Formulation for Water Systems: Part 2—Appendices,” American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, pp. 1–231 https://www.americanlifelinesalliance.com/pdf/Part_2_Appendices.pdf.
Salzano, E. , Iervolino, I. , and Fabbrocino, G. , 2003, “ Seismic Risk of Atmospheric Storage Tanks in the Framework of Quantitative Risk Analysis,” J. Loss Prev., 16(5), pp. 403–409. [CrossRef]
Berahman, F. , and Behnamfar, F. , 2007, “ Seismic Fragility Curves for Un-Anchored on-Grade Steel Storage Tanks: Bayesian Approach,” J. Earthq. Eng., 11(2), pp. 166–192. [CrossRef]
NIBS, 1999, “ Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology, HAZUS 99, Technical Manual,” Vol. II, Sciences National Institute of Building (NIBS), Washington, DC.
Applied Technology Council, 1985, “Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California,” Federal Emergency Management Agency, Redwood City, CA, Report No. ATC-13.
Applied Technology Council, 1991, “ Seismic Vulnerability and Inpact of Disruption of Lifelines in the Conterminous United States,” Federal Emergency Management Agency, Redwood City, CA, Report No. ATC 25.
Jaiswal, K. , Aspinall, W. , Perkins, D. , Wald, D. J. , and Porter, K. A. , 2012, “ Use of Expert Judgment Elicitation to Estimate Seismic Vulnerability of Selected Building Types,” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal, Sept. 24–28, pp. 1–10. http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/WCEE2012_4542.pdf
Bell, R. , and Glade, T. , 2004, “ Quantitative Risk Analysis for Landslides—Examples from Bíldudalur, NW-Iceland,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 4, pp. 117–131.
Colombi, M. , Borzi, B. , Crowley, H. , Onida, M. , Meroni, F. , and Pinho, R. , 2008, “ Deriving Vulnerability Curves Using Italian Earthquake Damage Data,” Bull. Earthq. Eng., 6(3), pp. 485–504. [CrossRef]
Lantada, N. , Irizarry, J. , Barbat, A. H. , Goula, X. , Roca, A. , Susagna, T. , and Pujades, L. G. , 2010, “ Seismic Hazard and Risk Scenarios for Barcelona, Spain, Using the Risk-UE Vulnerability Index Method,” Bull. Earthq. Eng., 8(2), pp. 201–229. [CrossRef]
Phan, H. N. , Paolacci, F. , Bursi, S. O. , and Tondini, N. , 2017, “ Seismic Fragility Analysis of Elevated Steel Storage Tanks Supported by Reinforced Concrete Columns,” J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 47, pp. 57–65. [CrossRef]
Singhal, A. , and Kiremidjian, A. S. , 1996, “ Method for Probabilistic Evaluation of Seismic Structural Damage,” J. Struct. Eng., 122(12), pp. 1459–1467. [CrossRef]
Rossetto, T. , and Elnashai, A. , 2005, “ A New Analytical Procedure for the Derivation of Displacement-Based Vulnerability Curves for Populations of RC Structures,” Eng. Struct., 27(3), pp. 397–409. [CrossRef]
Miller, L. E. , and Kunce, J. T. , 1973, “ Prediction and Statistical Overkill Revisited,” Meas. Eval. Guid., 6(3), pp. 157–163. [CrossRef]
Harrell, F. E. , Lee, L. K. , Matchar, D. B. , and Reichert, T. A. , 1985, “ Regression Models for Prognostic Prediction: Advantages, Problems and Suggested Solutions,” Cancer Treat. Rep., 69(10), pp. 1071–1077. [PubMed]
Barlett, J. E. , Kortlik, J. W. , and Higgins, C. C. , 2001, “ Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research,” Inf. Technol. Learn. Perform. J., 19(1), pp. 43–50.
Babyak, M. A. , 2004, “ What You See May Not Be What You Get: A Brief, Nontechnical Introduction to Overfitting in Regression-Type Models,” Psycosomatic Med., 66(3), pp. 411–421.
Harris, R. J. , 1975, A Primer of Multivariate Statistics, Academic Press, New York.
Green, S. B. , 1991, “ How Many Subjects Does It Take to Do a Regression Analysis?,” Multivariate Behav. Res., 26(3), pp. 499–510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Guadagnoli, E. , and Wayne, F. V. , 1988, “ Relation to Sample Size to the Stability of Component Patterns,” Pcychological Bull., 103(2), pp. 265–275. [CrossRef]
Rossetto, T. , Ioannou, I. , Grant, D. N. , and Maqsood, T. , 2014, Guidelines for Empirical Vulnerability Assessment, GEM Foundation, Pavia, Italy, Report No. 2014-08 V1.0.0.
Porter, K. A. , Farokhnia, K. , Cho, I. H. , Rossetto, T. , Ioannou, I. , Grant, D. , Jaiswal, K. , Wald, D. , D'Ayala, D. , Meslem, A. , So, E. , Kiremidjian, A. S. , and Noh, H. Y. , 2012, “ Global Vulnerability Estimation Methods for the Global Earthquake Model,” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal, Sept. 24–28, Paper No. WCEE2012_4504 http://www.sparisk.com/pubs/Porter-2012-15WCEE-GEM-Vulnerability.pdf.
Boore, D. M. , Stewart, J. P. , Seyhan, E. , and Atkinson, G. M. , 2014, “ NGA-West2 Equations for Predicting Response Spectral Accelerations for Shallow Crustal Earthquakes,” Earthq. Spectra, 30(3), pp. 1057–1085. [CrossRef]
Fischer, E. , 2014, “ Learning from Earthquakes: 2014 Napa Valley Earthquake Reconnaissance Report,” Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, Purdue e-Pubs https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/civlgradreports/1.
Stratta, J. , 1980, “ Reconnaissance Report: Greenville (Diablo/Livermore), California Earthquake Sequence,” Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA, pp. 20–54.
Kiremidjian, A. , Ortiz, K. , Nielsen, R. , and Safavi, B. , 1985, “ Seismic Risk to Major Industrial Facilities,” John A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center, Stanford, CA, Technical Report No. 72. https://stacks.stanford.edu/file/druid:nx764pz3149/TR72_Kiremidjian.pdf
Steinbrugge, K. , and Moran, D. , 1954, “ An Engineering Study of the Southern California Earthquake of July 21, 1952 and Its Aftershocks,” Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 44(2B), pp. 201–462.
Hanson, R. , 1973, “ Behavior of Liquid-Storage Tanks,” The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964, Washington, DC, pp. 331–339.
Belanger, D. P. , 1973, “ Port of Whittier,” The Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964, Washington, DC, pp. 1074–1107.
Hausler, E. , and Sitar, N. , 1970, “ Performance of Soil Improvement Techniques in Earthquakes, Nippon Oil Co. Ose Oil Tank Yard,” Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Berkeley, CA, Report (in progress).
Hausler, E. , and Sitar, N. , 1970, “ Performance of Soil Improvement Techniques in Earthquakes, Showa Oil Co. Niigata Refinery Oil Tanks,” Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Berkeley, CA, Report (in progress).
Watabene, T. , 1966, “ Damage to Oil Refinery Plants and a Building Compacted by the Niigata Earthquake and Their Restoration,” Soil Found., 6(2), pp. 86–99.
Wald, D. J. , Quitoriano, V. , Heaton, T. H. , Kanamori, H. , Scrivner, C. W. , and Worden, C. B. , 1998, “ TriNet “Shakemaps”: Rapid Generation of Peak Ground Motion and Intensity Maps for Earthquakes in Southern California,” Earthq. Spectra, 15(3), pp. 537–555. [CrossRef]
Kawano, K. , Oda, T. , Yoshida, K. , Yamamoto, S. , Shibuva, T. , and Yamada, S. , 1978, “ Damage of Oil Storage Tanks for Off Miyagi Prefecture Earthquake of June 12, 1978,” Preliminary Report, United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, pp. 507–510.
Blume, J. A. , 1978, “ Preliminary Report (as of June 30, 1978) on the Japan Earthquake of June 12, 1978 and Its Effects,” EIC, pp. 5–10.
Brady, G. A. , 1978, “ Preliminary Report in Investigations of Japanese Earthquake June 12, 1978,” United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, pp. 12–14.
EERI, 1980, “ Earthquake Reconnaissance Report,” Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA.
Scholl, R. , and Stratta, J. , 1984, “ The Coalinga, California, Earthquake of May 2, 1983: A Reconnaissance Report,” Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA, pp. 1–312.
Chan, T. K. , Lichterman, J. D. , Swan, S. W. , and Yanev, P. I. , 1990, “ Effects of the Earthquake on Industrial Facilities: A Preliminary Summary,” M. J. Rymer and W. L. Ellsworth, eds., Coalinga, CA, Earthq. May 2, 1983, USGS, pp. 381–398.
Connor, I. N. , 1985, “ The San Antonio, Chile, Earthquake of 3 March 1985,” Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 18(2), pp. 128–138.
Pineda, P. , Saragoni, G. R. , and Arze L, E. , 2011, “ Performance of Steel Tanks in Chile 2010 and 1985 Earthquakes,” Behaviour of Steel Structures in Seismic Areas, Mazzolani and Herrera, eds., London, pp. 337–342.
EERI, 1986, “ The Chile Earthquake of March 3, 1985—Industrial Facilities,” Earthq. Spectra, 2, pp. 373–409. [CrossRef]
Booth, E. , and Taylor, C. , 1988, “ The Chilean Earthquake of 3 March 1985—A Field Report By EEFIT,” Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team, pp. 1–86.
Ballantyne, D. B. , and Crouse, C. , 1997, “ Reliability and Restoration of Water Supply Systems for Fire Suppression and Drinking Following Earthquakes,” Building and Fire Research Laboratory, Gaithersburg, MD.
Schiff, A. J. , 1998, “ The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989-Lifelines,” U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper No. 1552-A.
EEFIT, 1993, “ The Loma Prieta Earthquake of 17 October 1989,” The Institution of Structural Engineers, London.
EQE Engineering, 1989, “ The October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake,” EQE Engineering, San Francisco, CA.
EERI, 1989, “ Loma Prieta Earthquake October 17, 1989, Preliminary Reconnaissance Report,” Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA.
Santana, G. , 1994, “ The April 22, 1991 Limon (Costa Rica) Earthquake,” Tenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 7033–7038.
EERI, 1991, “ Costa Rica Earthquake Reconnaissance Report,” Earthq. Spectra., 7(Suppl. B), pp. 1–127.
Cooper, T. , and Wachholz, T. , 1994, “ The Effects of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake on Storage Tanks,” NEHRP Conference and Workshop on Research on the Northridge, California Earthquake of January 17, pp. 751–764.
EERI, 1995, “ Northridge Earthquake Reconnaissance Report,” Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA, EERI Special Earthquake Report, pp. 245–285.
Brown, K. , Rugar, P. , Davis, C. , and Rulla, T. , 1995, “ Seismic Performance of Los Angeles Water Tanks, Lifeline Earthquake Engineering,” Fourth U.S. Conference and Workshop on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering (TCLEE), San Francisco, CA, Aug. 10–12, pp. 68–675.
EQE International, 1995, “ The January 17, 1995 Kobe Earthquake, An EQE Summary Report,” EQE International, San Francisco, CA https://caltech.tind.io/record/606927.
Eshghi, S. , and Razzaghi, M. S. , 2005, “ Performance of Industrial Facilities in the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake,” Earthq. Spectra., 21(S1), pp. 395–410. [CrossRef]
Hopkins, D. , Benites, R. , Burr, J. , Hamilton, C. , and Kotze, R. , 2008, “ The Pisco (Peru) Earthquake of 15 August 2007, NZSEE Reconnaissance Report,” Bull. New Zeal. Soc. Earthq. Eng., 41(3), pp. 109–192. http://www.nzsee.org.nz/db/Bulletin/Archive/41(3)0109.pdf
Taucer, F. , Alarcon, J. , and So, E. , 2007, “ 2007 August 15 Magnitude 7.9 Earthquake near the Coast of Central Peru,” Earthquake Field Investigation Team (EEFIT) Field Mission, Final Report.
Herrera, R. , and Beltran, J. F. , 2012, “ Performance of Steel Structures During the February 27, 2010, Chile Earthquake,” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (WCEE), Lisboa, Japan, Sept. 24–28, Paper No. WCEE2012_4249 http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/WCEE2012_4249.pdf.
Moehle, J. , Riddell, R. , and Boroschek, R. , 2010, “ The Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010,” Special Earthquake Report, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, CA, pp. 1–20.
Nishi, H. , 2012, “ Damage on Hazardous Materials Facilities,” International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Tokyo, Japan, Mar. 1–4, pp. 903–912. http://www.jaee.gr.jp/event/seminar2012/eqsympo/pdf/papers/53.pdf
Krausmann, E. , and Cruz, A. M. , 2013, “ Impact of the 11 March 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on the Chemical Industry,” Nat. Hazards., 67(2), pp. 811–828. [CrossRef]
Almutfi, I. , Barbosa, A. , Bray, J. , Dawson, T. , Marrow, J. , and Mieler, M. , 2014, “ M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake of August 24, 2014,” Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Special Earthquake Report EERI, Oakland, CA, pp. 1–27.
Wald, D. , Wald, L. , Worden, B. , and Goltz, J. , 2003, “ ShakeMap—A Tool for Earthquake Response,” United States Geological Survey, USGS Fact Sheet No. FS-087-03 https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-087-03/FS-087-03-508.pdf.
D'Amico, M. , Taniguchi, T. , and Nakashima, T. , 2017, “ Simplified Analysis of the Rocking Motion of a Cylindrical Tank Focusing on the Role of Dynamic Forces Involved in Rocking-Bulging Interaction,” ASME Paper No. PVP2017-65442.
Lees, F. , 2004, Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries—Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control, 3rd ed., Sam Mannan, ed., Elsevier, New York.
Lallemant, D. , Kiremidjian, A. , and Burton, H. , 2015, “ Statistical Procedures for Developing Earthquake Damage Fragility Curves,” Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 44(9), pp. 1–17.
Gelman, A. B. , Carlin, J. B. , Stern, H. S. , and Rubin, D. B. , 2013, Bayesian Data Analysis, 3rd ed., Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, London.
Buratti, N. , Minghini, F. , Ongaretto, E. , Savoia, M. , and Tullini, N. , 2017, “ Empirical Seismic Fragility for the Precast RC Industrial Buildings Damaged by the 2012 Emilia (Italy) Earthquakes,” Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 46(14), pp. 2317–2335. [CrossRef]
Koutsourelakis, P. S. , Pradlwarter, H. J. , and Schueller, G. I. , 2003, “ Reliability of Structures in High Dimensions, in,” Proc. Appl. Math. Mech., 3(1), pp. 495–496. [CrossRef]
Shinozuka, M. , Feng, M. Q. , Lee, L. , and Naganuma, T. , 2000, “ Statistical Analysis of Fragility Curves,” J. Eng. Mech., 126(12), pp. 1224–1231. [CrossRef]
R Development Core Team, 2008, “R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing,” R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Plummer, M. , 2003, “ JAGS: A Program for Analysis of Bayesian Graphical Models Using Gibbs Sampling,” Third International Workshop on Distributed Statistical Computing (DSC), Vienna, Austria, Mar. 20–22, pp. 1–10. https://www.r-project.org/conferences/DSC-2003/Proceedings/Plummer.pdf
Phan, H. N. , and Paolacci, F. , 2016, “ Efficient Intensity Measures for Probabilistic Seismic Response Analysis of Anchored above-Ground Liquid Steel Storage Tanks,” ASME Paper No. PVP2016-63103.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Percentage of damaged tanks for each PGA range

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Fragility curves for all tanks in database in terms of damage states

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Fragility curves for H/D = 0.2 and 0.6 in terms of damage states. Lines without marker correspond to all tanks (see Fig. 2).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Fragility curves for FL = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.9 in terms of damage states. Lines without marker correspond to all tanks (see Fig. 2).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fragility curves for unanchored tanks in terms of damage states. Lines without marker correspond to all tanks (see Fig. 2).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Fragility curves for all tanks in database in terms of risk levels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Fragility curves for H/D = 0.2 and 0.6 in terms of risk levels. Lines without marker correspond to all tanks (see Fig. 6).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Fragility curves for FL = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.9 in terms of risk levels. Lines without marker correspond to all tanks (see Fig.6).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Fragility curves for unanchored tanks in terms of risk levels. Lines without marker correspond to all tanks (see Fig. 6).

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In