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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Numerical Modeling and Analytical Investigation of Autofrettage Process on the Fluid End Module of Fracture Pumps

[+] Author and Article Information
Mahdi Kiani

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Tulsa,
800 S. Tucker Dr.,
Tulsa, OK 74104
e-mails: mahdi-kiani@utulsa.edu;
mkiani@cittech.com

Roger Walker

Mem. ASME
Citadel Technologies,
6430 S. 39th West Avenue,
Tulsa, OK 74132
e-mail: rwalker@cittech.com

Saman Babaeidarabad

Citadel Technologies,
6430 S. 39th West Avenue,
Tulsa, OK 74132
e-mail: sbabaeidarabad@cittech.com

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Citadel Technologies, 6430 S. 39th West Avenue, Tulsa, OK 74132.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 15, 2018; final manuscript received April 20, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Steve J. Hensel.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(4), 041403 (May 21, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1015; doi: 10.1115/1.4040138 History: Received January 15, 2018; Revised April 20, 2018

One of the most important components in the hydraulic fracturing is a type of positive-displacement-reciprocating-pumps known as a fracture pump. The fluid end module of the pump is prone to failure due to unconventional drilling impacts of the fracking. The basis of the fluid end module can be attributed to cross bores. Stress concentration locations appear at the bores intersections and as a result of cyclic pressures failures occur. Autofrettage is one of the common technologies to enhance the fatigue resistance of the fluid end module through imposing the compressive residual stresses. However, evaluating the stress–strain evolution during the autofrettage and approximating the residual stresses are vital factors. Fluid end module geometry is complex and there is no straightforward analytical solution for prediction of the residual stresses induced by autofrettage. Finite element analysis (FEA) can be applied to simulate the autofrettage and investigate the stress–strain evolution and residual stress fields. Therefore, a nonlinear kinematic hardening material model was developed and calibrated to simulate the autofrettage process on a typical commercial triplex fluid end module. Moreover, the results were compared to a linear kinematic hardening model and a 6–12% difference between two models was observed for compressive residual hoop stress at different cross bore corners. However, implementing nonlinear FEA for solving the complicated problems is computationally expensive and time-consuming. Thus, the comparison between nonlinear FEA and a proposed analytical formula based on the notch strain analysis for a cross bore was performed and the accuracy of the analytical model was evaluated.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Geometry model of the triplex fluid end module

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Fig. 2

Comparison between experimental true stress–strain curve and FEA calibrated material model

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Fig. 3

Symmetry boundary condition on the fluid end module

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Fig. 4

Autofrettage applied pressure inside the fluid end module

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Fig. 5

Fluid end module mesh structure and assigned seeds

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Fig. 6

Central bore Mises stress contour at autofrettage over-pressurizing

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Fig. 7

Central crossbore Mises stress contour at autofrettage over-pressurizing

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Fig. 8

Side bore residual Mises stress contour after autofrettage

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Fig. 9

Evolution of the Mises stress versus equivalent strain during the autofrettage (load of 490 Mpa)

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Fig. 10

Autofrettage effects on the side cross bore corners stresses

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Fig. 11

Hoop stress contour of operating pressure (103 Mpa) simulation after autofrettage (490 Mpa) simulation

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Fig. 12

Illustration of AP and AS in the fluid end module cross section

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Fig. 13

Comparison between FEA and analytical results

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Fig. 14

Compressive residual stress as a function of autofrettage pressure

Tables

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