Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Detection of a Defect on the Back of a Pipe by Noncontact Remote Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Takahiro Hayashi

Graduate School of Engineering,
Kyoto University,
Kyoto-daigaku Katsura Nishikyo-ku,
Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
e-mail: hayashi@kuaero.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 7, 2017; final manuscript received September 1, 2018; published online November 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: San Iyer.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(6), 061401 (Nov 12, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1081; doi: 10.1115/1.4041433 History: Received May 07, 2017; Revised September 01, 2018

Pipe inspection is generally executed with ultrasonic pulse echo testing where a small range of pipe wall under an ultrasonic transducer can be evaluated in one measurement. Costly and laborious point-by-point testing is required if a whole range of a pipe should be inspected. The author has investigated fast defect imaging for a plate-like structure using a scanning laser source (SLS) technique as an efficient defect inspection technique. Although the imaging technique is feasible in noncontact remote measurements, only a plate cross section under the laser irradiation surface can be evaluated. This study describes detection of wall thinning on the back of a pipe using resonance of guided wave propagating in a pipe circumference by noncontact remote measurements with the SLS technique. The narrowband elastic waves are generated in a pipe by modulating laser pulses with fiber laser equipment. When the modulation frequency is in harmony with the resonance frequency of a circumferential guided wave, the distribution of the frequency spectrum peak obtained with the SLS technique becomes identical to the resonance pattern of the circumferentially guided wave mode. The distributions are distorted for a pipe with wall thinning on the back indicating that this technique has a potential for detection of defects on the back of a pipe.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Resonance , Pipes , Lasers , Waves
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Fig. 1

Dispersion curves for an aluminum alloy pipe: (a) phase velocity and (b) group velocity

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Fig. 2

Circumferential variations for different circumferential mode orders: (a) n = 0, (b) n = 1, (c) n = 2, (d) n = 3, (e) n = 4, (f) n = 5, (g) n = 6, (h) n = 7, (i) n = 8, (j) n = 9, (k) n = 10, and (l) n = 11

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup

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Fig. 4

Pipe specimen with artificial wall thinning

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Fig. 5

Pipe support arrangements and generation and receiving points: (a) experiments shown in Figs. 6 and 7(a); (b) experiments shown in Fig. 7(b)

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Fig. 6

Waveforms and their frequency spectra for the pipe support arrangement shown in Fig. 5(a): (a) waveforms and (b) Fourier spectra

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Fig. 7

Frequency spectrum peak variations with frequency: (a) pipe support arrangement of Fig. 5(a); (b) pipe support arrangement of Fig. 5(b)

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Fig. 8

Distributions of frequency spectrum peak for an intact pipe. The arrangement of the pipe supports and the receiving position is as shown in Fig. 5(b): (a) 7.2 kHz (n = 5), (b) 10.5 kHz (n = 6), (c) 14.3 kHz (n = 7), (d) 18.6 kHz (n = 8), (e) 23.4 kHz (n = 9), (f) 28.7 kHz (n = 10), and (g) 34.4 kHz (n = 11).

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Fig. 9

Schematic figure of spirally propagating waves

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Fig. 10

Distributions of frequency spectrum peak at 7.2 kHz: (a) receiving position at the left edge; (b) receiving position at the right edge; (c) sum of (a) and (b); (d) arrangement of a pipe cross section and a laser emission region

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Fig. 11

Distributions of frequency spectrum peak at 14.3 kHz: (a) receiving position at the left edge; (b) receiving position at the right edge; (c) sum of (a) and (b); (d) arrangement of a pipe cross section and a laser emission region

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Fig. 12

Sum of distributions of frequency spectrum peak for left and right receiving positions when wall thinning is located at θ = 235 deg: (a) 7.2 kHz, (b) 14.3 kHz, and (c) arrangement of a pipe cross section and a laser emission region



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