Research Papers: Design and Analysis

A Novel Visual Apparatus for Laboratory Simulation of Seafloor Hydrothermal Venting

[+] Author and Article Information
Shijun Wu

The State Key Lab of Fluid Power &
Mechatronic Systems,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: bluewater@zju.edu.cn

Keren Xie

The State Key Lab of Fluid Power &
Mechatronic Systems,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: 240564711@qq.com

Canjun Yang

The State Key Lab of Fluid Power &
Mechatronic Systems,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: ycj@zju.edu.cn

Dejun Li

The State Key Lab of Fluid Power &
Mechatronic Systems,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: li_dejun@zju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 27, 2017; final manuscript received September 5, 2018; published online November 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: San Iyer.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(6), 061201 (Nov 12, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1076; doi: 10.1115/1.4041488 History: Received April 27, 2017; Revised September 05, 2018

In this paper, a novel visual experimental apparatus for simulating seafloor hydrothermal venting is proposed. The instrument consists mainly of an acrylic pressure vessel and a hydrothermal fluid syringe pump, which provided a 360 deg view of the simulated hydrothermal venting and plumes. Theoretical calculation and finite element analysis (FEA) were conducted to demonstrate the appropriateness of material selection and structural design for the acrylic pressure vessel. The experimental apparatus was tested at elevated temperature and pressure of up to 300 °C and 12 MPa. Hydrothermal venting experiments were successfully carried out with this apparatus, and clear images of hydrothermal plumes were obtained.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Di Iorio, D. , Lavelle, J. W. , Rona, P. A. , Bemis, K. , Xu, G. , Germanovich, L. N. , Lowell, R. P. , and Genc, G. , 2012, “ Measurements and Models of Heat Flux and Plumes From Hydrothermal Discharges Near the Deep Seafloor,” Oceanography, 25(1), pp. 168–179. [CrossRef]
Tivey, M. K. , 2007, “ Generation of Seafloor Hydrothermal Vent Fluids and Associated Mineral Deposits,” Oceanography, 20(1), pp. 50–65. [CrossRef]
Colin-Garcia, M. , Heredia, A. , Cordero, G. , Camprubi, A. , Negron-Mendoza, A. , Ortega-Gutierrez, F. , Beraldi, H. , and Ramos-Bernal, S. , 2016, “ Hydrothermal Vents and Prebiotic Chemistry: A Review,” Bol. Soc. Geol. Mex., 68(3), pp. 599–620. http://www.scielo.org.mx/pdf/bsgm/v68n3/1405-3322-bsgm-68-03-00599.pdf
Dickson, F. W. , Tunell, G. , and Blount, C. W. , 1963, “ Use of Hydrothermal Solution Equipment to Determine Solubility of Anhydrite in Water From 100 °C to 275 °C and From 1 Bar to 1000 Bars Pressure,” Am. J. Sci., 261(1), pp. 61–78. [CrossRef]
Seyfried, W. E. , Gordon, P. C. , and Dickson, F. W. , 1979, “ A New Reaction Cell for Hydrothermal Solution Equipment,” Am. Miner., 64(5–6), pp. 646–649. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237537770_New_reaction_cell_for_hydrothermal_solution_equipment
Berndt, M. E. , Seal, R. R. , Shanks, W. C. , and Seyfried, W. E. , 1996, “ Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Phase Separation in Submarine Hydrothermal Systems: Experimental Calibration and Theoretical Models,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60(9), pp. 1595–1604. [CrossRef]
Wu, S. , Cai, M. , Yang, C. , and Li, K. , 2016, “ A New Flexible Titanium Foil Cell for Hydrothermal Experiments and Fluid Sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 87(9), p. 095110. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bignall, G. , Yamasaki, N. , and Hashida, T. , 2000, “ A Newly Developed Flow-Reactor With PH Measurement System, for Laboratory Simulation of Waterrock Interaction Processes,” World Geothermal Congress , Kyushu, Tohoku, Japan, May 28–June 10, p. 665. https://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/2000/R0526.PDF
Mitsuzawa, S. , Deguchi, S. , Takai, K. , Tsujii, K. , and Horikoshi, K. , 2005, “ Flow-Type Apparatus for Studying Thermotolerance of Hyperthermophiles Under Conditions Simulating Hydrothermal Vent Circulation,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I-Oceanogr. Res. Pap, 52(6), pp. 1085–1092. [CrossRef]
Turner, J. S. , 1995, “ Laboratory Models of Growing Flanges, and a Comparison With Other Growth Mechanisms of ‘Black Smoker’ Chimneys,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 134(3–4), pp. 491–499. [CrossRef]
Mielke, R. E. , Robinson, K. J. , White, L. M. , McGlynn, S. E. , McEachern, K. , Bhartia, R. , Kanik, I. , and Russell, M. J. , 2011, “ Iron-Sulfide-Bearing Chimneys as Potential Catalytic Energy Traps at Life's Emergence,” Astrobiology, 11(10), pp. 935–950. [CrossRef]
Woods, A. W. , and Caulfield, C. P. , 1992, “ A Laboratory Study of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions,” J. Geophys. Res., 97(B5), pp. 6699–6712. [CrossRef]
Crone, T. J. , McDuff, R. E. , and Wilcock, W. S. D. , 2008, “ Optical Plume Velocimetry: A New Flow Measurement Technique for Use in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems,” Exp. Fluids, 45(5), pp. 899–915. [CrossRef]
Tao, Y. , Rosswog, S. , and Bruggen, M. , 2013, “ A Simulation Modeling Approach to Hydrothermal Plumes and Its Comparison to Analytical Models,” Ocean Model., 61, pp. 68–80. [CrossRef]
Woods, A. W. , 2010, “ Turbulent Plumes in Nature,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 42(1), pp. 391–412. [CrossRef]
Lavelle, J. W. , Di Iorio, D. , and Rona, P. , 2013, “ A Turbulent Convection Model With an Observational Context for a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Plume in a Time-Variable Cross Flow,” J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118(11), pp. 6145–6160. [CrossRef]
Jiang, H. , and Breier, J. A. , 2014, “ Physical Controls on Mixing and Transport Within Rising Submarine Hydrothermal Plumes: A Numerical Simulation Study,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I-Oceanogr. Res. Pap, 92, pp. 41–55. [CrossRef]
Sysoev, A. V. , and Kantor, Y. I. , 1995, “ Two New Species of Phymorhynchus (Gastropoda, Conoidea, Conidea) From the Hydrothermal Vents,” Ruthenica, 5(1), pp. 17–26. https://www.conchbooks.de/?t=642&u=25302&bookgroup=Journals&subgroup=&journaltitle=
Schrenk, M. O. , Kelly, D. S. , Delaney, J. R. , and Baross, J. A. , 2003, “ Incidence and Diversity of Microorganisms Within the Walls of an Active Deep-Sea Sulfide Chimney,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69(6), pp. 3580–3592. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Stachiw, J. D. , and Sletten, R. , 1976, “ Spherical-Shell Sector Acrylic Plastic Windows With 12,000 Ft Operational Depth for Submersible Alvin,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 98(2), pp. 523–536. [CrossRef]
Stachiw, J. D. , 1972, “ Conical Acrylic Windows Under Long-Term Hydrostatic Pressure of 10,000 Psi,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 94(4), pp. 1053–1059.
Xie, Y. , Zhang, H. , Liu, S. , Yang, P. , and Luo, X. , 2013, “ A Study on Stress Corrosion Crack of Thick-Walled Elbow in Manifold for Acid Fracturing,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 135(2), p. 021207. [CrossRef]
Parker, A. P. , Troiano, E. , and Underwood, J. H. , 2012, “ Stress and Stress Intensity Factor Near Notches in Thick Cylinders,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 134(4), p. 041002. [CrossRef]
Stachiw, J. D. , and Gray, K. O. , 1971, “ Procurement of Safe Viewports for Hyperbaric Chambers,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 93(4), pp. 943–952.
Wu, S. , Yang, C. , Chen, Y. , and Xie, Y. , 2010, “ A Study of the Sealing Performance of a New High-Pressure Cone Valve for Deep-Sea Gas-Tight Water Samplers,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 132(4), p. 041601. [CrossRef]
Evans, C. J. , and Miller, T. F. , 2015, “ Failure Prediction of Pressure Vessels Using Finite Element Analysis,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 137(5), p. 051206. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the hydrothermal fluid syringe pump

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the acrylic pressure vessel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup for simulation of seafloor hydrothermal venting

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Radial displacement of the acrylic pressure vessel wall at 10 MPa internal pressure: (a) pressure vessel without fixed collars and (b) pressure vessel with fixed collars

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Hoop stress distribution of acrylic pressure vessel wall at 10 MPa internal pressure: (a) pressure vessel without fixed collars and (b) pressure vessel with fixed collars

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stress distribution of end caps and support beams at 10 MPa internal pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for laboratory simulation of seafloor hydrothermal venting

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Photographs of hydrothermal plumes at a hydrothermal fluid temperature of 200 °C and 10 MPa pressure: (a) venting module with a vertical channel and (b) venting module with an oblique channel (angle of 30 deg to the horizontal)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In