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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Predictions of ICHAZ Cyclic Thermomechanical Response in GTAW Process for 9Cr Steels

[+] Author and Article Information
Padraig Mac Ardghail

Mechanical Engineering and Ryan Institute,
NUI Galway,
Alice Perry Engineering Building,
University Road,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
e-mail: p.macardghail1@nuigalway.ie

Richard A. Barrett

Mechanical Engineering and Ryan Institute,
NUI Galway,
Alice Perry Engineering Building,
University Road,
Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
e-mail: richard.barrett@nuigalway.ie

Noel Harrison

Mechanical Engineering,
NUI Galway,
Alice Perry Engineering Building,
University Road,
Galway X91 HX31, Ireland;
I-Form Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre,
Ireland Ryan Institute,
NUI Galway,
University Road,
Galway X91 TK33, Ireland
e-mail: noel.harrison@nuigalway.ie

Sean B. Leen

Mechanical Engineering,
NUI Galway,
Alice Perry Engineering Building,
University Road,
Galway X91 HX31, Ireland;
I-Form Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre,
Ireland Ryan Institute,
NUI Galway,
University Road,
Galway X91 TK33, Ireland
e-mail: sean.leen@nuigalway.ie

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 24, 2017; final manuscript received January 18, 2019; published online February 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: San Iyer.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(2), 021403 (Feb 25, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1129; doi: 10.1115/1.4042712 History: Received July 24, 2017; Revised January 18, 2019

This work is concerned with the development of a modeling framework to predict the effects of tempered–untempered martensite heterogeneity on the thermomechanical performance of welded material. A physically based viscoplasticity model for the intercritical heat-affected zone (ICHAZ) for 9Cr steels (e.g., P91, P92) is presented in this work, with the ICHAZ represented as a mixture of tempered and untempered martensite. The constitutive model includes dislocation-based Taylor hardening and damage for different material phases. A sequentially coupled thermal–mechanical welding simulation is conducted to predict the volume fraction compositions for the various weld-affected material zones in a cross-weld (CW) specimen. The out-of-phase cyclic thermomechanical (25 °C to 600 °C) performance of notched and plain samples is comparatively assessed for a range of different tempered–untempered martensitic material heterogeneities. It is shown that the heterogeneity in a simulated CW material is highly detrimental to thermal cyclic performance.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic continuous-cooling-transformation diagram for 9Cr steel, following Ref.[20]

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Fig. 2

Contour plots of (a) postweld distribution of tempered martensite PM (TMR volume fraction = 1) and untempered martensite (TMR volume fraction = 0) in a girth-weld simulation and (b) finite element model of the simulated CW specimen (not to scale)

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Fig. 3

Flowchart of the phase-evolution aspect of the through-process model

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Fig. 4

Comparison between model predicted (lines) and test data (symbols) at a range of temperatures for (a) tempered martensite and (b) untempered martensite

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Fig. 5

Flowchart of the mixed-phase constitutive aspect of the through-process model

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Fig. 6

Schematic of the axisymmetric cyclic out-of-phase thermomechanical simulation

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Fig. 7

Comparison of stress–temperature results for (a) tempered and untempered martensite, (b) of ICHAZ (80% tempered martensite, 20% untempered martensite) with PM (Fully tempered), and (c) the effect of increasing volume fraction of untempered martensite on stress–temperature response

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Fig. 8

Comparison of CW stress–temperature response with that of tempered PM

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Fig. 9

Comparison of WLRF for isothermal HTLCF data [7], with projections forward to the peak temperature of this work. An adjusted WLRF based on TMF data [14] is also displayed.

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Fig. 10

Effect of notch radius on (a) tempered and (b) untempered martensite stress–temperature response

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Fig. 11

The evolution of the von Mises stress, maximum in-plane principal strain and damage for the notched (ro/R = 0.25) tempered martensite specimen at three time instances during the simulation

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Fig. 12

The evolution of the temperature, tempered martensite volume fraction and normalized dislocation density during welding-induced heating of the CW specimen

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Fig. 13

Model predictions [28] of the effect of PWHT (at 750 °C) time on HTLCF WLRF up to 30 min and a prediction of the WLRF at 180 min based on the trend set by the model predictions compared to HTLCF test data [31] (strain-range 2%, strain-rate 0.3%/s, 600 °C)

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