Research Papers: Fluid-Structure Interaction

Impulsive Motion in a Cylindrical Fluid-Filled Tube Terminated by a Converging Section

[+] Author and Article Information
Jean-Christophe Veilleux

Aerospace Laboratories,
California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, CA 91125
e-mail: jc.veilleux@caltech.edu

Joseph E. Shepherd

Aerospace Laboratories,
California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, CA 91125
e-mail: joseph.e.shepherd@caltech.edu

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 19, 2018; final manuscript received February 5, 2019; published online February 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Marwan A. Hassan.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(2), 021302 (Feb 25, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1231; doi: 10.1115/1.4042799 History: Received October 19, 2018; Revised February 05, 2019

The syringe in a subcutaneous auto-injector may be subjected to internal pressure transients due to the normal operation of the injection mechanism. These transients are similar to transients in fluid-filled pipelines observed during water hammer events. In this paper, the effect of an air gap in the syringe and a converging section is studied experimentally and numerically in a model system which consists of a fluid-filled metal tube that is impulsively loaded with a projectile to simulate the action of the auto-injector mechanism operation. The air between the buffer and the water results in a complex interaction between the projectile and the buffer. Also, there are tension waves inside the tube due to the presence of a free surface and the motion of the buffer, and this causes distributed cavitation which, in turn, gives rise to steepening of the pressure waves. The converging section can amplify the pressure waves if the wave front is sharp, and it can enhance the collapse of bubbles. Pressures as high as 50 MPa have been measured at the apex of the cone with impact velocities of 5.5 m/s.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the base fixtures (single hatch for aluminum and double hatch for polycarbonate): (a) Cross section view of the aluminum base fixture without a cone. (b) Cross section view of the aluminum base fixture with a cone. (c) Cross section view (left) and isometric view (right) of the polycarbonate base fixture with a partial view of the aluminum tube.

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Fig. 3

ls-dyna model for the test specimen with a converging section

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Fig. 4

Reflection of pressure waves at an interface

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Fig. 5

Pressure at the bottom end for case 1 (the time axis is discontinuous)

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Fig. 6

Wave dynamics in the test setup (adapted from Ref. [15] with permission)

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Fig. 7

Hoop and axial strains for case 1: (a) hoop strains and (b) axial strains

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Fig. 8

Motion of the buffer and the projectile with a space–time pressure plot (ls-dyna) for case 1

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Fig. 9

Pressure at the bottom end for case 2 (the time axis is discontinuous)

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Fig. 10

Sequence of images showing distributed cavitation for case 2

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Fig. 11

Pressure at the bottom end for case 3

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Fig. 12

Motion of the buffer and the projectile with a space–time pressure plot (ls-dyna) for case 3

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Fig. 13

Pressure at the bottom end for case 4

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Fig. 14

Motion of the buffer and the projectile with a space–time pressure plot (ls-dyna) for case 4

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Fig. 15

Hoop strains for case 4

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Fig. 16

Pressure at the bottom end for case 5

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Fig. 17

Sequence of images showing cavitation at the tip of the cone for tests performed with a large air gap



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