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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Ultrasonic Interface Wave for Interlaminar Crack Detection in Steel–Titanium Composite Pipe

[+] Author and Article Information
Fei Tian

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing
Systems Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an 710049, China
e-mail: tf1019@126.com

Bing Li

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing
Systems Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an 710049, China
e-mail: bli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Weimeng Zhou

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing
Systems Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an 710049, China
e-mail: weimzhou@sina.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 26, 2018; final manuscript received March 25, 2019; published online May 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yun-Jae Kim.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(4), 041401 (May 08, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1045; doi: 10.1115/1.4043372 History: Received February 26, 2018; Revised March 25, 2019

The bimetal composite pipe has found wide ranging applications in engineering owing to its excellent mechanical and physical performances. However, the interlaminar cracks which are usually invisible and inaccessible may occur in the bimetal composite pipe and are difficult to detect. The ultrasonic interface wave, which propagates along the interface with high displacement amplitudes and low dispersion at high frequencies, provides a promising nondestructive testing (NDT) method for detecting cracks in the bimetal composite pipe. In this study, the interlaminar crack detection method in the steel–titanium composite pipe is investigated analytically and experimentally by using interface wave. The interface wave mode in steel–titanium composite pipe is first identified and presented by theoretical analyses of dispersion curves and wave structures. The selection of suitable excitation frequency range for NDT is discussed as well. Then an experiment is conducted to measure the interface wave velocities, which are in good agreement with the corresponding numerical results. In addition, interlaminar cracks with different locations in steel–titanium composite pipe are effectively detected and located, both in the axial and circumferential directions. Finally, the relationship between the reflection coefficient and the crack depth is experimentally studied to predict the reflection behavior of interface wave with crack. The numerical and experimental results show the interface wave is sensitive to interfacial crack and has great potentials for nondestructive evaluation in the bimetal composite pipe.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Analysis model of the double-layered pipe

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Fig. 2

Dispersion curves of the longitudinal guided wave in the steel–titanium composite pipe: (a) phase velocity and (b) group velocity

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Fig. 3

Wave structures of the first three order modes at 1.50 MHz in the steel–titanium pipe: (a) L(0,1) mode, (b) L(0,2) mode, and (c) L(0,3) mode

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Fig. 4

Wave structures of the L(0,3) mode at different excitation frequencies in the steel–titanium pipe: (a) f =1.00 MHz, (b) f =1.25 MHz, (c) f =1.50 MHz, and (d) f =1.75 MHz

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Fig. 5

Experimental specimen of the double-layered seamless steel–titanium composite pipe: (a) front view photograph and (b) right side view photograph

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Fig. 6

Experimental configuration

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Fig. 7

Schematic of the waveform transformation and propagation process in the intact specimen (the two circles on the external surface of steel layer are the simplifications of the acoustic incident point for transducer I and II)

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Fig. 8

Measured signal at the excitation frequency of 1.20 MHz in the intact specimen: (a) echo wave train and (b) its Hilbert envelope curve

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Fig. 9

Group velocity comparison of the interface wave mode L(0,3) between experimental and numerical results

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Fig. 10

Location of the interlaminar transverse crack in axial and circumferential directions: (a) front view schematic and (b) cross section view of the crack

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Fig. 11

Measured signals of single cracks at different axial locations: (a) L =200 mm and (b) L =400 mm

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Fig. 12

Circumferential localization results (reflection coefficient distributions) of the single crack at L =400 mm

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Fig. 13

Envelope curves of the measured signals with different interlaminar crack depths h and ratios of crack depth to wavelength h/λ

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Fig. 14

Relationship between the reflection coefficient and crack depth

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