Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Ultrasonic Interface Wave for Interlaminar Crack Detection in Steel–Titanium Composite Pipe

[+] Author and Article Information
Fei Tian

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing
Systems Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an 710049, China
e-mail: tf1019@126.com

Bing Li

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing
Systems Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an 710049, China
e-mail: bli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Weimeng Zhou

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing
Systems Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Xi'an 710049, China
e-mail: weimzhou@sina.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 26, 2018; final manuscript received March 25, 2019; published online May 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yun-Jae Kim.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(4), 041401 (May 08, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1045; doi: 10.1115/1.4043372 History: Received February 26, 2018; Revised March 25, 2019

The bimetal composite pipe has found wide ranging applications in engineering owing to its excellent mechanical and physical performances. However, the interlaminar cracks which are usually invisible and inaccessible may occur in the bimetal composite pipe and are difficult to detect. The ultrasonic interface wave, which propagates along the interface with high displacement amplitudes and low dispersion at high frequencies, provides a promising nondestructive testing (NDT) method for detecting cracks in the bimetal composite pipe. In this study, the interlaminar crack detection method in the steel–titanium composite pipe is investigated analytically and experimentally by using interface wave. The interface wave mode in steel–titanium composite pipe is first identified and presented by theoretical analyses of dispersion curves and wave structures. The selection of suitable excitation frequency range for NDT is discussed as well. Then an experiment is conducted to measure the interface wave velocities, which are in good agreement with the corresponding numerical results. In addition, interlaminar cracks with different locations in steel–titanium composite pipe are effectively detected and located, both in the axial and circumferential directions. Finally, the relationship between the reflection coefficient and the crack depth is experimentally studied to predict the reflection behavior of interface wave with crack. The numerical and experimental results show the interface wave is sensitive to interfacial crack and has great potentials for nondestructive evaluation in the bimetal composite pipe.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kane, R. D. , Wilheim, S. M. , Yoshida, T. , Matsui, S. , and Iwase, T. , 1991, “ Analysis of Bimetallic Pipe for Sour Service,” SPE Prod. Eng., 6(3), pp. 291–296. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. , Li, P. , and Wang, R. , 2005, “ Study on Hydro-Forming Technology of Manufacturing Bimetallic CRA-Lined Pipe,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 45(4–5), pp. 373–378. [CrossRef]
Chen, Z. , Ikeda, K. , Murakami, T. , Takeda, T. , and Xie, J. X. , 2003, “ Fabrication of Composite Pipes by Multi-Billet Extrusion Technique,” J. Mater. Process Technol., 137(1–3), pp. 10–16. [CrossRef]
Brust, F. W. , and Scott, P. M. , 2007, “ Weld Residual Stresses and Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in Bimetal Nuclear Pipe Welds,” ASME Paper No. PVP2007-26297.
Valle, C. , Qu, J. , and Jacobs, L. J. , 1999, “ Guided Circumferential Waves in Layered Cylinders,” Int. J. Eng. Sci., 37(11), pp. 1369–1387. [CrossRef]
Bouda, A. B. , Lebaili, S. , and Benchaala, A. , 2003, “ Grain Size Influence on Ultrasonic Velocities and Attenuation,” NDT E Int., 36(1), pp. 1–5. [CrossRef]
Murakami, Y. , Kashimura, H. , Fukuda, S. , and Hoshino, Y. , 1992, “ Quality Assurance System for Mechanically Bonded Bimetallic Pipe,” Second International Off-shore and Polar Engineering Conference, San Francisco, CA, June 14–19, pp. 164–168.
Lowe, M. J. S. , Alleyne, D. N. , and Cawley, P. , 1998, “ Defect Detection in Pipes Using Guided Waves,” Ultrasonics, 36(1–5), pp. 147–154. [CrossRef]
Rose, J. L. , 2002, “ A Baseline and Vision of Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection Potential,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 124(3), pp. 273–282. [CrossRef]
Zhang, L. , Luo, W. , and Rose, J. L. , 2006, “ Ultrasonic Guided Wave Focusing Beyond Welds in a Pipeline,” Rev. Prog. Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., 820(1), pp. 877–884.
He, C. , Liu, H. , Liu, Z. , and Wu, B. , 2013, “ The Propagation of Coupled Lamb Waves in Multilayered Arbitrary Anisotropic Composite Laminates,” J. Sound Vib., 332(26), pp. 7243–7256. [CrossRef]
Kessler, S. S. , Spearing, S. M. , and Soutis, C. , 2002, “ Damage Detection in Composite Materials Using Lamb Wave Methods,” Smart Mater. Struct., 11(2), pp. 269–278. [CrossRef]
Li, F. , Su, Z. , Ye, L. , and Meng, G. , 2006, “ A Correlation Filtering-Based Matching Pursuit (CF-MP) for Damage Identification Using Lamb Waves,” Smart Mater. Struct., 15(6), pp. 1585–1594. [CrossRef]
Su, Z. , Ye, L. , and Lu, Y. , 2006, “ Guided Lamb Waves for Identification of Damage in Composite Structures: A Review,” J. Sound Vib., 295(3–5), pp. 753–780. [CrossRef]
Stoneley, R. , 1924, “ Elastic Waves at the Surface of Separation of Two Solids,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 106(738), pp. 416–428. [CrossRef]
Scholte, J. G. , 1947, “ The Range of Existence of Rayleigh and Stoneley Waves,” Geophys. J. Int., 5(5), pp. 120–126. [CrossRef]
Murty, G. S. , 1975, “ Wave Propagation at Unbonded Interface Between Two Elastic Half-Spaces,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 58(5), pp. 1094–1095. [CrossRef]
Tomar, S. K. , and Singh, D. , 2006, “ Propagation of Stoneley Waves at an Interface Between Two Microstretch Elastic Half-Spaces,” J. Vib. Control, 12(9), pp. 995–1009. [CrossRef]
Vinh, P. C. , and Giang, P. T. H. , 2011, “ On Formulas for the Velocity of Stoneley Waves Propagating Along the Loosely Bonded Interface of Two Elastic Half-Spaces,” Wave Motion, 48(7), pp. 647–657. [CrossRef]
Gardner, M. D. , Rose, J. L. , Koudela, K. L. , and Moose, C. A. , 2013, “ Inspectability of Interfaces Between Composite and Metallic Layers Using Ultrasonic Interface Waves,” Proc. Meet. Acoust., 19(1), p. 030105.
Li, B. , Qiang, L. , Lu, T. , Geng, X. , and Li, M. , 2015, “ A Stoneley Wave Method to Detect Interlaminar Damage of Metal Layer Composite Pipe,” Front. Mech. Eng., 10(1), pp. 89–94. [CrossRef]
Lee, D. A. , and Corbly, D. M. , 1977, “ Use of Interface Waves for Nondestructive Inspection,” IEEE Trans. Son. Ultrason., 24(3), pp. 206–211. [CrossRef]
Claus, R. O. , and Palmer, C. H. , 1980, “ Optical Measurements of Ultrasonic Waves on Interfaces Between Bonded Solids,” IEEE Trans. Son. Ultrason., 27(3), pp. 97–102. [CrossRef]
Lee, J. , Park, J. , and Cho, Y. , 2016, “ A Novel Ultrasonic NDE for Shrink Fit Welded Structures Using Interface Waves,” Ultrasonics, 68, pp. 1–7. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rokhlin, S. I. , Hefets, M. , and Rosen, M. , 1981, “ An Ultrasonic Interface-Wave Method for Predicting the Strength of Adhesive Bonds,” J. Appl. Phys., 52(4), pp. 2847–2851. [CrossRef]
Biwa, S. , Suzuki, A. , and Ohno, N. , 2005, “ Evaluation of Interface Wave Velocity, Reflection Coefficients and Interfacial Stiffnesses of Contacting Surfaces,” Ultrasonics, 43(6), pp. 495–502. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bostron, J. H. , Rose, J. L. , and Moose, C. A. , 2013, “ Ultrasonic Guided Interface Waves at a Soft-Stiff Boundary,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 134(6), pp. 4351–4359. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cho, H. , and Rokhlin, S. I. , 2015, “ Interface Wave Propagation and Edge Conversion at a Low Stiffness Interphase Layer Between Two Solids: A Numerical Study,” Ultrasonics, 62, pp. 213–222. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Demma, A. , Cawley, P. , Lowe, M. J. S. , Roosenbrand, A. G. , and Pavlakovic, B. , 2004, “ The Reflection of Guided Waves From Notches in Pipes: A Guide for Interpreting Corrosion Measurements,” NDT E Int., 37(3), pp. 167–180. [CrossRef]
Rose, J. L. , 2014, Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Solid Media, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Analysis model of the double-layered pipe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Dispersion curves of the longitudinal guided wave in the steel–titanium composite pipe: (a) phase velocity and (b) group velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Wave structures of the first three order modes at 1.50 MHz in the steel–titanium pipe: (a) L(0,1) mode, (b) L(0,2) mode, and (c) L(0,3) mode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Wave structures of the L(0,3) mode at different excitation frequencies in the steel–titanium pipe: (a) f =1.00 MHz, (b) f =1.25 MHz, (c) f =1.50 MHz, and (d) f =1.75 MHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Experimental specimen of the double-layered seamless steel–titanium composite pipe: (a) front view photograph and (b) right side view photograph

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic of the waveform transformation and propagation process in the intact specimen (the two circles on the external surface of steel layer are the simplifications of the acoustic incident point for transducer I and II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Measured signal at the excitation frequency of 1.20 MHz in the intact specimen: (a) echo wave train and (b) its Hilbert envelope curve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Group velocity comparison of the interface wave mode L(0,3) between experimental and numerical results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Location of the interlaminar transverse crack in axial and circumferential directions: (a) front view schematic and (b) cross section view of the crack

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Measured signals of single cracks at different axial locations: (a) L =200 mm and (b) L =400 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Circumferential localization results (reflection coefficient distributions) of the single crack at L =400 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Envelope curves of the measured signals with different interlaminar crack depths h and ratios of crack depth to wavelength h/λ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Relationship between the reflection coefficient and crack depth



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In