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Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Design of TiO2–SiO2–MgO and SiO2–MgO–Al2O3-Based Submerged Arc Fluxes for Multipass Bead on Plate Pipeline Steel Welds

[+] Author and Article Information
Lochan Sharma

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342037, India
e-mail: sharma.11@iitj.ac.in

Rahul Chhibber

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342037, India
e-mail: rahul_chibber@iitj.ac.in

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 29, 2018; final manuscript received March 21, 2019; published online May 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Steve J. Hensel.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(4), 041402 (May 08, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1141; doi: 10.1115/1.4043375 History: Received July 29, 2018; Revised March 21, 2019

High strength low alloy steels are extensively used in different applications like oil and gas transmission line pipes, pressure vessels and offshore oil drilling platforms. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is mainly used to weld high thickness steel plates. Flux composition and welding parameters play an important role in determining the adequate quality and mechanical properties of the weld. Agglomerated fluxes were formulated based on TiO2–SiO2–MgO and SiO2–MgO–Al2O3 flux system using constrained mixture design and extreme vertices design approach. The chemical compositions of the bead on a plate have been studied using formulated fluxes. Twenty-one beads on plates were applied using submerged arc welding process keeping the parameters: current, voltage, and welding speed constant. Regression models were developed for bead on plate content in terms of individual, binary, and ternary mixture flux constituents for submerged arc multipass bead on plate deposition for pipeline steel (API 5 L X70). In the present study, chemical composition, grain size, and microhardness properties of the multipass bead on a plate (for API 5 L X70 grade pipeline) were optimized using multi-objective optimization approach.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Ternary phase diagram of (a) TiO2–SiO2–MgO and (b) SiO2–MgO–Al2O3 system [17,18] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier © 2019)

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Fig. 2

Three-dimensional space diagram [19] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier © 2019)

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Fig. 3

Multipass beads on plate experimentation performed on SAW machine

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Fig. 4

Predicted versus actual values for (a) C, (b) Si, (c) P, (d) S, and (e) Mn

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Fig. 5

Predicted versus actual values for (a) Mo, (b) Cr, and (c) Ti

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Fig. 6

Microstructure examination for multipass bead on plate specimens at 200× magnification; (a) bead 2, (b) bead 6, (c) bead 13, and (d) bead 21

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Fig. 7

Contour surface plots for chemical composition of multipass bead on plate properties: (a) C, (b) Si, (c) P, (d) S, and (e) Mn

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Fig. 8

Contour surface plots for chemical composition of multipass bead on plate properties, (a) Mo, (b) Cr, and (c) Ti

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