Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Design of TiO2–SiO2–MgO and SiO2–MgO–Al2O3-Based Submerged Arc Fluxes for Multipass Bead on Plate Pipeline Steel Welds

[+] Author and Article Information
Lochan Sharma

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342037, India
e-mail: sharma.11@iitj.ac.in

Rahul Chhibber

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342037, India
e-mail: rahul_chibber@iitj.ac.in

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 29, 2018; final manuscript received March 21, 2019; published online May 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Steve J. Hensel.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(4), 041402 (May 08, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1141; doi: 10.1115/1.4043375 History: Received July 29, 2018; Revised March 21, 2019

High strength low alloy steels are extensively used in different applications like oil and gas transmission line pipes, pressure vessels and offshore oil drilling platforms. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is mainly used to weld high thickness steel plates. Flux composition and welding parameters play an important role in determining the adequate quality and mechanical properties of the weld. Agglomerated fluxes were formulated based on TiO2–SiO2–MgO and SiO2–MgO–Al2O3 flux system using constrained mixture design and extreme vertices design approach. The chemical compositions of the bead on a plate have been studied using formulated fluxes. Twenty-one beads on plates were applied using submerged arc welding process keeping the parameters: current, voltage, and welding speed constant. Regression models were developed for bead on plate content in terms of individual, binary, and ternary mixture flux constituents for submerged arc multipass bead on plate deposition for pipeline steel (API 5 L X70). In the present study, chemical composition, grain size, and microhardness properties of the multipass bead on a plate (for API 5 L X70 grade pipeline) were optimized using multi-objective optimization approach.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Houldcroft, P. T. , 1989, Submerged-Arc Welding, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
Murugan, N. , and Gunaraj, V. , 2005, “ Prediction and Control of Weld Bead Geometry and Shape Relationships in Submerged Arc Welding of Pipes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 168(3), pp. 478–487. [CrossRef]
Parmar, R. S. , 1992, Welding Processes and Technology, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Kanjilal, P. , Pal, T. K. , and Majumdar, S. K. , 2006, “ Combined Effect of Flux and Welding Parameters on Chemical Composition and Mechanical Properties of Submerged Arc Weld Metal,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 171(2), pp. 223–231. [CrossRef]
O'Brien, R. L. , 1991, AWS Welding Handbook: Welding Processes, American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Chai, C. S. , and Eagar, T. W. , 1980, “ Effect of SAW Parameters on Weld Metal Chemistry,” Weld. Res. Suppl., pp. 93-s–98-s.
Mitra, U. , and Eagar, T. W. , 1984, “ Slag Metal Reactions During Submerged Arc Welding of Alloy Steels,” Metall. Trans. A, 15(1), pp. 217–227. [CrossRef]
Pandey, N. D. , Bharti, A. , and Gupta, S. R. , 1994, “ Effect of Submerged Arc Welding Parameters and Fluxes on Element Transfer Behaviour and Weld-Metal Chemistry,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 40(1–2), pp. 195–211. [CrossRef]
Kanjilal, P. , Pal, T. K. , and Majumdar, S. K. , 2007, “ Prediction of Element Transfer in Submerged Arc Welding,” Weld. J., 86(5), pp. 135-s–146-s.
Burck, P. A. , Indacochea, J. E. , and Olson, D. L. , 1990, “ Effects of Welding Flux Additions on 4340 Steel Weld Metal Composition,” Weld. Res. Suppl., 3, pp. 115-s–122-s.
Ramirez, J. E. , 2008, “ Characterization of High-Strength Steel Weld Metals: Chemical Composition, Microstructure and Non-Metallic Inclusions,” Weld. J., 87, pp. 65-s–75-s.
Anderson, V. L. , and McLean, R. A. , 1974, Design of Experiments: A Realistic Approach, Marcel Dekker, New York.
Cornell, J. A. , 2011, Experiments With Mixtures: Designs, Models, and the Analysis of Mixture Data, Wiley, New York.
Adeyeye, A. D. , and Oyawale, F. A. , 2008, “ Mixture Experiments and Their Applications in Welding Flux Design,” J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci., 30(4), pp. 319–326. [CrossRef]
Jindal, S. , Chhibber, R. , and Mehta, N. P. , 2013, “ Investigation on Flux Design for Submerged Arc Welding of High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 227(3), pp. 383–395. [CrossRef]
Bhandari, D. , Chhibber, R. , Arora, N. , and Mehta, R. , 2016, “ Investigation of TiO2–SiO2–CaO–CaF2 Based Electrode Coatings on Weld Metal Chemistry and Mechanical Behaviour of Bimetallic Welds,” J. Manuf. Processes, 23, pp. 61–74. [CrossRef]
Katsuya, K. , Satoshi, D. , and Hideki, K. , 2003, “Inorganic Fiber and Method of Producing the Same,” U.S. Patent No. 6627568 B2.
Levin, E. M. , Robbins, C. R. , and McMurdie, H. F. , 1964, “ Phase Diagrams for Ceramists,” American Ceramic Society, Columbus, OH, accessed Apr. 11, 2019, https://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/equilibria/ternary_diagrams.html
Sharma, L. , and Chhibber, R. , 2019, “ Investigating the Physicochemical and Thermophysical Properties of Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes Designed Using TiO2-SiO2-MgO and SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 Flux Systems for Linepipe Steels,” Ceram. Int., 45, pp. 1569–1587.
Bhandari, D. , Chhibber, R. , and Arora, N. , 2012, “ Effect of Electrode Coatings on Diffusible Hydrogen Content, Hardness and Microstructures of the Ferritic Heat Affected Zones in Bimetallic Welds,” Adv. Mater. Res., 383, pp. 4697–4701.
Houldcroft, P. T. , 1977, Welding Process Technology, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Golovko, V. V. , and Potapov, N. N. , 2011, “ Special Features of Agglomerated (Ceramic) Fluxes in Welding,” Weld. Int., 25(11), pp. 889–893. [CrossRef]
Fleck, N. G. , Grong, O. , Edwards, G. R. , and Matlock, D. K. , 1986, “ The Role of Filler Metal Wire and Flux Composition in Submerged Arc Weld Metal Transformation Kinetics,” Weld. J., 65(5), p. 113 s.
Chai, C. S. , and Eagar, T. W. , 1981, “ Slag-Metal Equilibrium During Submerged Arc Welding,” Metall. Trans. B, 12(3), pp. 539–547.
North, T. H. , Bell, H. B. , Nowicki, A. , and Craig, I. , 1978, “ Slag/Metal Interaction, Oxygen and Toughness in Submerged Arc Welding,” Weld. J., 57(229), p. 63 s.
Parmar, R. S. , 2015, Welding Engineering and Technology, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Bang, K.-S. , Park, C. , Jung, H.-C. , and Lee, J. B. , 2009, “ Effects of Flux Composition on the Element Transfer and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal in Submerged Arc Welding,” Met. Mater. Int., 15(3), pp. 471–477.
Maalekian, M. , 2007, “The Effects of Alloying Elements on Steels (I), Christian Doppler Laboratory for Early Stages of Precipitation,” Technische Universität Graz, Graz, Austria.
Mori, N. , Homma, H. , Wakabayashi, M. , and Okita, S. , 1982, “ Characteristics of Mechanical Properties of Ti-B Bearing Weld Metals,” HW DOC IX-1229-82.
TsuboiTerashima, H. , 1983, “ Review of Strength and Toughness of Ti and Ti-B Microalloyed Deposits,” Weld. World, 21(11/12), pp. 304–316.
Kohno, R. , Takami, T. , Mori, N. , and Nagano, K. , 1982, “ New Fluxes of Improved Weld Metal Toughness for HSLA Steels,” Weld. J., 61(12), pp. 373-s–380-s.
Lancaster, J. F. , 1980, Metallurgy of Welding, Alden Press Ltd, London, pp. 25–50; 6th, ed., Woodhead Publication, pp. 110–177; 1999, HRT, Hertfordshire, UK.
Derringer, G. , and Suich, R. , 1980, “ Simultaneous Optimization of Several Response Variables,” J. Qual. Technol., 12(4), pp. 214–219. [CrossRef]
Harington, J. , 1965, “ The Desirability Function,” Ind. Qual. Control, 21, pp. 494–498.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Ternary phase diagram of (a) TiO2–SiO2–MgO and (b) SiO2–MgO–Al2O3 system [17,18] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier © 2019)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Three-dimensional space diagram [19] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier © 2019)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Multipass beads on plate experimentation performed on SAW machine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Predicted versus actual values for (a) C, (b) Si, (c) P, (d) S, and (e) Mn

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Predicted versus actual values for (a) Mo, (b) Cr, and (c) Ti

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Microstructure examination for multipass bead on plate specimens at 200× magnification; (a) bead 2, (b) bead 6, (c) bead 13, and (d) bead 21

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Contour surface plots for chemical composition of multipass bead on plate properties: (a) C, (b) Si, (c) P, (d) S, and (e) Mn

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Contour surface plots for chemical composition of multipass bead on plate properties, (a) Mo, (b) Cr, and (c) Ti



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In