Radial forging is an open die forging process used for reducing the diameters of shafts, tubes, stepped shafts and axels, and for creating internal profiles in tubes. Among parameters affecting process variables, the die geometry is of fundamental importance and greatly influences variables such as forging load, stress distribution on the dies, metal flow during deformation, and surface finish of the forged product. In this paper a generalized slab method analysis of radial forging process is presented which can handle this process with curved shape dies. Results for dies with various curves are presented and it is shown that the analysis reduces to that of Lahoti and Altan  when the die has a linear profile.
Generalized Slab Method Analysis of Radial Forging With a General Curved Shape Die
Afrasiab, H, & Movahhedy, MR. "Generalized Slab Method Analysis of Radial Forging With a General Curved Shape Die." Proceedings of the ASME 8th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis. Volume 4: Fatigue and Fracture, Heat Transfer, Internal Combustion Engines, Manufacturing, and Technology and Society. Torino, Italy. July 4–7, 2006. pp. 883-889. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ESDA2006-95801
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