Pipe Whip: In-Plane Whipping of Bent Cantilever Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
S. R. Reid

Applied Mechanics Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, U.K.

J. L. Yang

Solid Mechanics Research Centre, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, People’s Republic of China

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 120(2), 170-178 (May 01, 1998) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2842236 History: Received October 01, 1997; Revised October 21, 1997; Online February 11, 2008


The dynamic elastic-plastic behavior of a bent cantilever pipe subjected to an in-plane force pulse at its tip is described. A theoretical model based on a large deflection formulation of dynamic beam theory is described. This takes into account the plastic hardening-softening behavior which is characteristic of a pipe when it is subjected to large changes in curvature. This beam model was first formulated and applied by Reid et al. (1995b, 1996), who demonstrated that it was able to describe quite accurately the characteristics of freely whipping, straight cantilever pipes. The present paper extends this model to enable it to be applied to bent cantilever pipes and covers cases in which the bend angle is opened or closed. Previous attempts (Wang, 1991) to analyze these problems using a rigid, perfectly plastic model were not completely successful due to the inability to identify admissible modes of deformation for all circumstances. A systematic program of pipe whip tests has been carried out in UMIST on right-angled bent pipes. To illustrate the validity and use of the theoretical model, two typical cases are considered and the results compared with the experimental data extracted from high-speed films of the tests. Excellent agreement between the two is demonstrated.

Copyright © 1998 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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