A Sensitive Ultrasonic Approach to NDE of Tightly Closed Small Cracks

[+] Author and Article Information
S. R. Ahmed, M. Saka

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 120(4), 384-392 (Nov 01, 1998) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2842348 History: Received December 18, 1997; Revised May 27, 1998; Online February 11, 2008


A sensitive ultrasonic technique for the quantitative nondestructive evaluation of small closed cracks is developed. The use of an oblique longitudinal wave with small angle of incidence upon the specimen surface is emphasized. Firstly, ultrasonic testing is performed with open cracks in order to predict the optimum angle of evaluation, and an empirical calibration equation is then derived for the same as a basis to deal with the analysis of closed cracks. From the measurement on real fatigue cracks, the parameters of interest, specifically the crack size and the closure stress, are determined simultaneously by analyzing the inverse problem. The method developed here is fully automated and computer-controlled. Evaluated results are found to be in good conformity with the destructive measurements, and the corresponding superiority of the method is realized, especially for tightly closed small fatigue cracks, when compared with the method using a beam of longitudinal wave incident normally and/or with a large angle.

Copyright © 1998 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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