Residual and Applied Stress Estimation From Directional Magnetic Permeability Measurements With MWM Sensors

[+] Author and Article Information
Vladimir Zilberstein, Mike Fisher, David Grundy, Darrell Schlicker, Vladimir Tsukernik, Valeriy Vengrinovich, Neil Goldfine

JENTEK Sensors, Inc., Waltham, MA 02453-7013e-mail: jentek@shore.net

Thomas Yentzer

WR-ALC, Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, GA

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 124(3), 375-381 (Jul 26, 2002) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1491273 History: Revised May 01, 2002; Online July 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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Representative MWM formats: (a) single sensing MWM sensor (D – drive, S – sense), (b) deep-penetration MWM-Array; and (c) high-resolution MWM-Array with multiple sensing elements for property imaging
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Measurement grids: (a) schematic of measurement grid generation process; (b) and (c) representative measurement grids relating the magnitude and phase of the sensor terminal transimpedance to the lift-off and magnetic permeability, e.g., for carbon and alloy steels, or lift-off and electrical conductivity, e.g., for superalloys, respectively
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MWM-Array sensor with the 37-channel probe (left), and 39-channel parallel instrumentation (right)
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Correlation between MWM measured permeability and maximum tensile stresses in the loading sequences
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MWM-Array generated normalized permeability images for one-half of a double-notched, low-alloy 4340 steel specimen failed in a tensile test. The images illustrate the ability to obtain distribution of residual stresses due to correlation between permeability and stresses. Figures (e) and (f) are photographs of the scanned area of the specimen. Images (a) and (b) were obtained with the MWM-Array operating at 1 MHz, while images (c) and (d) were obtained at 158 kHz. In (a) and (c), the primary winding of the MWM-Array was oriented parallel to the loading axis, while in (b) and (d), it was oriented perpendicular to the loading axis. The orientation of the MWM-Array relative to the specimen is schematically shown on the left.
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Test setup for MWM permeability measurements under variable bending stresses
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MWM measured permeability versus bending stress at stresses from −700 to +700 MPa. Note that in the legend, nos. 1 through 6 for each frequency indicate the sequence of loading.
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Multifrequency MWM permeability scan over an area with gentle grinding
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Multifrequency MWM permeability scan over an area with moderately aggressive grinding
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Multifrequency MWM permeability scan over an area with very aggressive grinding
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MWM measured permeability versus compressive residual stress (from X-ray diffraction) in a high-strength steel component



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