Materials and Fabrication

Investigation on Influence Factors of Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels for Cold Stretched Pressure Vessels

[+] Author and Article Information
Yaxian Li

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, 310027 P. R. China

Ping Xu

Institute of Applied Mechanics,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, 310027 P. R. China
e-mail: pingxu@zju.edu.cn

Abin Guo

Institute of Process Equipment,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou, P. R. China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 3, 2011; final manuscript received April 25, 2012; published online November 21, 2012. Assoc. Editor: David L. Rudland.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 134(6), 061407 (Nov 21, 2012) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007039 History: Received November 03, 2011; Revised April 25, 2012

Cold stretched pressure vessels from austenitic stainless steels (ASS) have been widely used all over the world for storage and transportation of cryogenic liquefied gases. Cold stretching (CS) is performed by pressurizing the finished vessels to a specific pressure to produce the required stress which in turn gives an amount of plastic deformation to withstand the pressure load. Nickel equivalent (Nieq) and preloading, which is introduced in welding procedure qualification for cold stretched pressure vessels, are considered to be important factors to mechanical behavior of ASS. During the qualification, welded joint will be preloaded considering the effect of CS on pressure vessels. After unloading, the preloaded welded joint will go through tensile test according to standard requirements. There are two kinds of preloading method. One is to apply required tensile stress σk on specimen and maintain it for a long time (stress-controlled preloading). The other is to stretch specimen to a specific strain of 9% (strain-controlled preloading). Different preloading and preloading rates may lead to differences in mechanical behavior of preloaded welded joint. In order to understand the effects of nickel equivalent, preloading and preloading rate on the mechanical behavior of ASS for cold stretched pressure vessels, a series of tests were conducted on base metal, welded joint, and preloaded welded joint of ASS EN1.4301 (equivalent to S30408 and AISI 304). As regards to the preloaded welded joint, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) decreased as the nickel equivalent increased, while the elongation to fracture increased. It was more difficult to meet the available mechanical requirements with strain-controlled preloading case than with stress-controlled preloading case. Rates of preloading had some effect on the mechanical properties of welded joint but nearly no effect on the mechanical properties of preloaded welded joint. These results are helpful for choosing appropriate material and determining a proper preloading method for welding procedure qualification.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


AS 1210-Supp2, 1999, “ Pressure Vessels-Cold-stretched Austenitic Stainless Steel Vessels.”
EN13458-2, 2002, “ Cryogenic Vessels-Static Vacuum Insulated Vessels Part 2: Design, Fabrication, Inspection and Testing.”
EN13530-2, 2002, “ Cryogenic Vessels-Large Transportable Vacuum Insulated Vessels Part 2: Design, Fabrication, Inspection and Testing.”
ASME Code Case 2596, 2008, “ Coldstretching of Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressure Vessels.”
Q/320582SDY7, 2008, “ Pressure Strengthening of Cryogenic Vessels From Austenitic Stainless Steels-Static Vessels.”
Hecker, S. S., Stout, M. G., Staudhammer, K. P., and Smith, J. L., 1982, “Effects of Strain State and Strain Rate on Deformation-Induced Transformation in 304 Stainless-Steel.1.Magnetic Measurements and Mechanical-behavior,” Metall. Trans. A, 13(4), pp. 619–626. [CrossRef]
Talonen, J., Nenonen, P., Pape, G., and Hanninen, H., 2005, “Effect of Strain Rate on the Strain-Induced Gamma ->Alpha'-Martensite Transformation and Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 36A(2), pp. 421–432. [CrossRef]
Das, A., Sivaprasad, S., Ghosh, M., Chakraborti, P. C., and Tarafder, S., 2008, “Morphologies and Characteristics of Deformation Induced Martensite During Tensile Deformation of 304 LN Stainless Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A-, 486(1-2), pp. 283–286. [CrossRef]
Chun-chun, X., Xin-sheng, Z., and Gang, H., 2002, “Microstructure Change of AISI304 Stainless Steel in the Course of Cold Working,” J. Beijing Univ. Chem. Technol., 29(6), pp. 27–31.
GB/T 228, 2002, “ Metallic Materials-Tensile Testing at Ambient Temperature.”
Talonen, J., Aspegren, P., and Hanninen, H., 2004, “Comparison of Different Methods for Measuring Strain Induced Alpha'-Martensite Content in Austenitic Steels,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 20(12), pp. 1506–1512. [CrossRef]
DIN EN 10028-7, 2008, “ Flat Products Made of Steels for Pressure Purposes-Part 7: Stainless Steels.”
ASTM A240/A 240M, 2010, “ Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications.”
GB 24511, 2009, “ Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet and Strip for Pressure Equipments.”
Follansbee, P. S., and G.T.Gary, I., 1989, “An Analysis of the Low Temperature, Low and High Strain-Rate Deformation of Ti-6Al-4V,” Metall. Trans. A, 20A, pp. 863–874. [CrossRef]
De, A. K., Speer, J. G., Matlock, D. K., Murdock, D. C., Mataya, M. C., and Comstock, R. J., 2006, “Deformation-Induced Phase Transformation and Strain Hardening in Type 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 37A(6), pp. 1875–1886. [CrossRef]
Lo, K. H., Shek, C. H., and Lai, J. K. L., 2009, “Recent Developments in Stainless Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng., R., 65(4-6), pp. 39–104. [CrossRef]
Fang, X. F., and Dahl, W., 1991, “Strain-Hardening and Transformation Mechanism of Deformation-Induced Martensite-Transformation in Metastable Austenitic Stainless-Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 141(2), pp. 189–198. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram for the stress–strain curves of preloading methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The effect of Nieq on YS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The effect of Nieq on UTS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The effect of Nieq on A

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

True stress–strain curves. (a) True stress–strain curves of type A and B; (b) the comparison on true stress–strain curves between different group tests with the same parameters.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

DIM transformation during the tests. (a) DIM mass fraction as a function of true strain in preloading and STT; (b) distribution of DIM mass fraction along the specimen gage length after fracture.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The correlation between work-hardening rate dσ/dɛ and true strain in preloading and STT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Flow stress as a function of the square root of the α′-martansite fraction



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In