Research Papers: Design and Analysis

On the Use of Shape Memory Alloy Studs to Recover Load Loss in Bolted Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Nazim Ould-Brahim

e-mail: nobrahim@connect.carleton.ca
Bell Helicopter,
Mirabel, Quebec J7J 1R4

Abdel-Hakim Bouzid

Fellow ASME
e-mail: hakim.bouzid@etsmtl.ca

Vladimir Brailovski

e-mail: vladimir.brailovski@etsmtl.ca
Ecole de Technologie Superieure,
1100 Notre-Dame Ouest,
Montreal, PQ, H3C 1K3, Canada

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Manuscript received September 8, 2011; final manuscript received October 19, 2012; published online March 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Osamu Watanabe.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 135(2), 021203 (Mar 18, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-11-1178; doi: 10.1115/1.4023416 History: Received September 08, 2011; Revised October 19, 2012

Creep is an important factor that contributes to the clamp load loss and tightness failure of bolted joints with and without gaskets over time. Retightening of the joint can be expensive and time consuming; therefore, it is an undesirable solution. Currently, most efforts are put towards reducing load losses directly by tightening to yield, improving material creep properties, or making joint less rigid. An alternative solution of current interest is the use of bolts in shape memory alloys (SMAs). However, very few experimental studies are available, which demonstrate the feasibility of these alloys. The objective of this study is to explore the benefit of shape memory and superelasticity behavior of an SMA stud to recover load losses due to creep and thermal exposure of a gasket in a bolted-joint assembly. This paper explores several venues to investigate and model the thermomechanical behavior of a bolted joint with a nickel–titanium SMA stud. A stiffness-based analytical model which incorporates the Likhachev model of SMA is used as a representation of an experimental bolted-joint assembly. Based on this model, the rigidity of the experimental setup is optimized to make the best use of the SMA properties of the stud. This analytical model is compared with a finite element model, which also implements the Likhachev's material law. Finally, an experimental test bench with a relatively low stiffness representative of standard flanges is used, with and without gaskets to demonstrate the ability of the SMA stud to recover load losses due to gasket creep.

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Fig. 1

Temperature distribution in a four-pass heat

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Fig. 3

Illustrations of the properties of SMA

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Fig. 4

Analytical model algorithm

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Fig. 5

FEM of the bolted-joint experimental assembly

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Fig. 6

Small-scale test rig for tensile testing [9]

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Fig. 7

Experimental SMA bolt assembly with instrumentation

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Fig. 8

5% Elongation test stress versus strain versus temperature

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Fig. 9

Small-scale characterization of SMA alloy

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the behavior of a B7 and an SMA stud in an experimental bolted gasketed joint

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Fig. 11

Comparison of experimental and simulation (analytical and ansys) results. Note: simulation results are nearly superposed.



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