Research Papers: Seismic Engineering

Damage Assessment of Seismically Excited Buildings Through Incomplete Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Chi-Chang Lin

Distinguished Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
National Chung Hsing University,
250 Kuo-Kuang Road,
Taichung 40227, Taiwan
e-mail: cclin3@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

Ging-Long Lin, Kun-Shu Hsieh

Department of Civil Engineering,
National Chung Hsing University,
250 Kuo-Kuang Road,
Taichung 40227, Taiwan

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 19, 2012; final manuscript received March 30, 2014; published online September 4, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Chong-Shien Tsai.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(6), 061801 (Sep 04, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4027326 History: Received March 19, 2012; Revised March 30, 2014

Measuring responses at all degrees of freedom (DOF) of a real structure is impossible and impractical when few sensors are available. This study presents a damage-assessment technique for seismically excited buildings using only a few floor-response measurements. In the first step, the system realization using information matrix (SRIM) identification technique was applied to estimate such modal properties as frequencies and damping ratios of an instrumented building. However, the complete mode shapes cannot be acquired due to a lack of comprehensive measurements. A novel optimal mode-shape-recovery (OMSR) technique was applied to reconstruct the complete first mode shape of the building system. An optimization process was then applied to minimize a prescribed objective function that represents the difference between measured and estimated outputs at instrumented locations. A story damage index (SDI) computed using the first mode shape recovered was applied to determine the degree of story damage. Noisy floor measurements of a five-story shear building under earthquake excitation were utilized for numerical verification. Moreover, a three-story benchmark building was analyzed to assess the accuracy and applicability of the proposed OMSR technique via experimental data. The proposed method obtained results in fairly good agreement with those of full measurements and is of value in practical application. The damage-assessment results obtained with the proposed method agree well with the actual damage, demonstrating that the proposed method is suitable for practical applications.

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Fig. 1

Flowchart of the proposed identification procedures

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Fig. 2

Illustration of the composition of yp(s) for the SRIM system-identification technique

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Fig. 3

The five-story shear building used for numerical simulation

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Fig. 4

Earthquake excitation for simulation (TCU076, PGA = 200 gal)

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Fig. 5

Initial guesses for the first mode shape

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Fig. 6

Floor SDI versus NSR (damaged at 2F(0.2))

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Fig. 7

Floor SDI versus NSR (damaged at 1F(0.3) and 3F(0.1))

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Fig. 8

Floor SDI versus NSR (damaged at 1F(0.3), 3F(0.2), 5F(0.2))

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Fig. 9

Photo of the three-story steel frame in NCREE

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Fig. 12

Comparisons of the SDI values of the proposed method and the full measurement

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Fig. 10

Definition of the undamaged and the damaged buildings

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Fig. 11

Comparisons of the estimated and the measured 1F accelerations of the steel frame (undamaged case)



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