Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Investigation of Bulging Behavior of Coke Drum—A Practical Analysis of Bulging Under Complex Quench Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Toshiya Yamamoto, Kazuaki Arii

Sumitomo Heavy Industries Process
Equipment Co., Ltd.,
1501 Imazaike, Saijo-city,
Ehime 799-1393, Japan

Shinta Niimoto

Sumitomo Heavy Industries
Process Equipment Co., Ltd.,
1501 Imazaike, Saijo-city,
Ehime 799-1393, Japan

Mitsuru Ohata, Tetsuya Tagawa, Fumiyoshi Minami

Osaka University,
2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita,
Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 26, 2012; final manuscript received April 30, 2014; published online September 4, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Hardayal S. Mehta.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 136(6), 061401 (Sep 04, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-12-1010; doi: 10.1115/1.4027591 History: Received January 26, 2012; Revised April 30, 2014

Coke drums undergo cyclic operations typically in the temperature range from room temperature to about 500 °C (930 °F). During quenching, the coke drum is inevitably subjected to a rapid drop in temperature because cooling water is injected directly into the coke drum through the bottom inlet nozzle. The temperature profile on the shell surface is uneven during quenching, and can vary in each cycle of the quenching operation. Such a complicated thermal profile induces large strains in the shell portion of the coke drum, and eventually causes damage like bulging and/or cracking. The authors have investigated the bulging behavior of the coke drum by the thermal elastic-plastic finite element (FE)-analysis, considering the existence of the overmatch welds and uneven temperature field during quenching (Ohata et al., 2011, “Investigation of Bulging Behavior of Coke Drum—Feasible Study on Causes of Bulging,” ASME PVP2011-57276, Baltimore). In this paper, a practical FE-analysis is developed to estimate the complex strain that leads to bulging under uneven temperature fields during quenching. The actual temperature and strain data during operation are collected by thermocouples and high temperature strain gauges. A thermal analysis model, including an evaluation of boiling heat transfer on the shell's inner surface, is established to simulate the measured shell behavior of the coke drum. By utilizing this FE-analysis model, several parameters thought of as causal factors in bulging can be examined under the uneven temperature profile that is likely to occur during actual operation. This analytical approach can also provide effective technique for improvements in shell durability.

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Fig. 1

Typical thermal cycle of coke drum

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Fig. 2

Measurement sample of shell behavior in quenching

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Fig. 3

Typical boiling curve

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Fig. 4

Laboratory test equipment for quench

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Fig. 5

Cooling curves for a water rising rate of 2 mm/s

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Fig. 6

Boiling curves during transients

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Fig. 7

Comparison of boiling curves for water

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Fig. 8

Adjustment for the heat transfer coefficient

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Fig. 9

Shell model and analysis conditions

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Fig. 10

Heat transfer coefficient

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Fig. 11

Result of cooling curve for outside shell

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Fig. 12

Area of focus for the FEA validation

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Fig. 13

Calculation flow chart for the heat transfer analysis

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Fig. 14

Validation of the temperature over time

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Fig. 15

Stress–strain diagram of 1¼Cr − ½Mo ally by actual high temperature tensile tests

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Fig. 16

Validation of strain over time

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Fig. 17

Equivalent plastic strain on inner and outer surfaces

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Fig. 18

Residual deformation after quenching



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