Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Monotonic, Low-Cycle Fatigue, and Ultralow-Cycle Fatigue Behaviors of the X52, X60, and X65 Piping Steel Grades

[+] Author and Article Information
J. C. R. Pereira

Rua Dr. Roberto Frias,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal;
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Porto,
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal
e-mail: joao7dc@gmail.com

A. M. P. de Jesus, A. A. Fernandes

Rua Dr. Roberto Frias,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal;
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Porto,
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias,
Porto 4200-465, Portugal

G. Varelis

PDL Solutions (Europe) Limited,
1 Tanners Yard, Hexham,
Northumberland NE46 3NY, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 10, 2015; final manuscript received December 2, 2015; published online February 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: David L. Rudland.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 138(3), 031403 (Feb 05, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: PVT-15-1119; doi: 10.1115/1.4032277 History: Received June 10, 2015; Revised December 02, 2015

Seismic actions, soil settlements and landslides, fluctuations in permafrost layers, accidental loads, and reeling are responsible for large plastic deformations and widespread yielding of pipelines, which may lead to damage or failure, either due to monotonic loading or cyclic plastic strain fluctuations of high amplitude and short duration (e.g., Ni < ∼100 cycles). The damage associated to high intensity cyclic plasticity shows a combination of distinct mechanisms typical of both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue (LCF) (∼102 < Ni < ∼104 cycles) damage regimes. This fatigue domain is often called ultralow-cycle fatigue (ULCF) or extreme-low-cycle fatigue, in order to distinguish it from LCF. Despite monotonic ductile fracture and LCF have been subjected to significant research efforts and a satisfactory level of understanding of these phenomena has been already established, ULCF is neither sufficiently investigated nor understood. Consequently, further advances should be done since the data available in literature is scarce for this fatigue regime. In addition, ULCF tests are very challenging and there are no specific standards available in literature providing guidance. In this work, the performances of the X52, X60, and X65 API steel grades under monotonic, LCF, and ULCF loading conditions are investigated by means of an experimental program. Smooth specimens are susceptive to instability under ULCF tests. To overcome or minimize this shortcoming, antibuckling devices may be used in the ULCF tests. The use of notched specimens facilitates the deformation localization and therefore contributes to overcome the instability problems. However, the nonuniform stress/strain states raise difficulties concerning the analysis of the experimental data, requiring the use of multiaxial stress/strain parameters. Optical methods and nonlinear finite-element models were used to assess the strain and stress histories at critical locations, which were used to assess some existing damage models.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Steel , Pipes , Cycles , Fatigue , Stress
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Fig. 1

Large plastic deformation at a pipeline section [1]

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Fig. 2

Relation of ULCF with other damage mechanisms [2]

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Fig. 3

Smooth plane dog-bone specimen (dashed circle represents the hole used for notched specimens)

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Fig. 4

Load–relative displacement (lateral necking) of smooth specimens of X52, X60, and X65 piping steels

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Fig. 5

Conventional stress–strain curves of smooth specimens of X52, X60, and X65 steel grades

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Fig. 6

Load–relative displacement of notched specimens of X52, X60, and X65 piping steels

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Fig. 7

Finite-element mesh of smooth plane dog-bone specimen of X60 piping steel

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Fig. 8

Cyclic curves of the X52, X60, and X65 piping steels (LCF data only)

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Fig. 9

Comparison of LCF strain-life relations of X52, X60, and X65 piping steels

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Fig. 10

Antibuckling device used in ULCF tests of smooth dog-bone specimens

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Fig. 11

Cyclic curves of X52, X60, and X65 piping steels (LCF plus ULCF data)

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Fig. 12

Comparison between experimental ULCF results and CM predictions, based on LCF experimental data (smooth specimens only)

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Fig. 13

Comparisons between strain-life relation of X52, X60, and X65 piping steels covering both ULCF and LCF regimes (smooth specimens only)

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Fig. 14

Load–strain (SP) or load–relative displacement (CH) hysteresis cycles: numerical versus experimental data

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Fig. 15

Comparisons between experimental results and CM relation prediction of notched specimen series using a multiaxial strain definition

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Fig. 16

Plastic strain amplitude versus number of cycles for crack initiation of X52 piping steel and Xue predictions (ULCF and LCF test data shown)

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Fig. 17

Plastic strain amplitude versus number of cycles for crack initiation of X60 piping steel and Xue predictions (ULCF and LCF test data shown)

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Fig. 18

Plastic strain amplitude versus number of cycles for crack initiation of X65 piping steel and Xue predictions (ULCF and LCF test data shown)

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Fig. 19

Influence of the lateral instability on the numerical load–deformation response of smooth specimens of X52 (a) and X60 (b) piping steels

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Fig. 20

Comparisons between experimental results and CM relation predictions for notched specimens using a multiaxial strain definition. CM parameters obtained from simulations of smooth specimens with lateral instabilities.



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