Research Papers: Seismic Engineering

Excitation Tests on Elbow Pipe Specimens to Investigate Failure Behavior Under Excessive Seismic Loads

[+] Author and Article Information
Izumi Nakamura

Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research
Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center,
National Research Institute for Earth Science and
Disaster Resilience,
3-1 Tennodai,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan
e-mail: izumi@bosai.go.jp

Naoto Kasahara

Department of Nuclear Engineering and
School of Engineering,
The University of Tokyo,
7-3-1, Hongo,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
e-mail: kasahara@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 25, 2017; final manuscript received September 6, 2017; published online October 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Steve J. Hensel.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(6), 061802 (Oct 04, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1018; doi: 10.1115/1.4037952 History: Received January 25, 2017; Revised September 06, 2017

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) resulting from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake raised awareness as to the importance of considering Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) when planning for safe management of NPPs. In considering BDBE, it is necessary to clarify the possible failure modes of structures under extreme loading. Because piping systems are one of the representative components of NPPs, an experimental investigation was conducted on the failure of a pipe assembly under simulated excessive seismic loads. The failure mode obtained by excitation tests was mainly fatigue failure. The reduction of the dominant frequency and the increase of hysteresis damping were clearly observed in high-level input acceleration due to plastic deformation, and they greatly affected the specimens’ vibration response. Based on the experimental results, a procedure is proposed for calculating experimental stress intensities based on excitation test so that they can be compared with design limitations.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


IAEA, 2016, “Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design,” Specific Safety Requirements, IAEA Safety Standards Series, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, Standard No. SSR-2/1 (Rev.1). http://www-pub.iaea.org/books/IAEABooks/8771/Safety-of-Nuclear-Power-Plants-Design
Kasahara, N. , Nakamura, I. , Machida, H. , and Nakamura, H. , 2014, “Research Plan on Failure Modes by Extreme Loadings Under Design Extension Conditions,” ASME Paper No. PVP2014-28349.
Fujita, K. , Shiraki, K. , Kitade, K. , and Nakamura, T. , 1978, “ Vibration Damaged Experiments of Curved Piping for Investigating the Seismic Ultimate Strength,” JSME, 44(386), pp. 3437–3445 (in Japanese). [CrossRef]
Fujiwaka, T. , Endou, R. , Furukawa, S. , Ono, S. , and Oketani, K. , 1999, “ Study on Strength of Piping Components Under Elastic-Plastic Behavior Due to Seismic Loading,” ASME PVP, 387, pp. 19–25.
Touboul, F. , Blay, N. , and Lacire, M. H. , 1999, “ Experimental, Analytical, and Regulatory Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Piping Systems,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 121(4), pp. 388–392. [CrossRef]
Tagart , S. W., Jr. , Tang, Y. K. , Guzy, D. J. , and Ranganath, S. , 1990, “ Piping Dynamic Reliability and Code Rule Change Recommendations,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 123(2–3), pp. 373–385. [CrossRef]
Varelis, G. E. , Karamanos, S. A. , and Gresnigt, A. M. , 2012, “ Pipe Elbows Under Strong Cyclic Loading,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 135(1), p. 011207. [CrossRef]
Yoshino, K. , Endou, R. , Sakaida, T. , Yokota, H. , Fujiwaka, T. , Asada, Y. , and Suzuki, K. , 2000, “ Study on Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plant Piping in Japan—Part 3: Component Test Results,” ASME PVP, 407, pp. 131–137.
Takahashi, K. , Watanabe, S. , Ando, K. , Hidaka, A. , Hisatsune, M. , and Miyazaki, K. , 2009, “ Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviors of Elbow Pipe With Local Wall Thinning,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 239(12), pp. 2719–2727. [CrossRef]
Nakamura, I. , Otani, A. , and Shiratori, M. , 2004, “Failure Behavior of Elbows With Local Wall Thinning Under Cyclic Load,” ASME Paper No. PVP2004-2950.
Nakamura, I. , Otani, A. , and Shiratori, M. , 2010, “ Comparison of Failure Modes of Piping Systems With Wall Thinning Subjected to In-Plane, Out-of-Plane, and Mixed Mode Bending Under Seismic Load: An Experimental Approach,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 132(3), p. 031001. [CrossRef]
Nakamura, I. , Otani, A. , Sato, Y. , Takada, H. , and Takahashi, K. , 2010, “Tri-Axial Shake Table Test on the Thinned Wall Piping Model and Damage Detection Before Failure,” ASME Paper No. PVP2010-25839.
Nakamura, I. , Otani, A. , Sato, Y. , Takada, H. , Takahashi, K. , and Shibutani, T. , 2011, “Investigation of the Seismic Safety Capacity of Aged Piping System—Shake Table Test on Piping Systems With Wall Thinning by E-Defense,” ASME Paper No. PVP2011-57560.
JSME, 2005, “Codes for Nuclear Power Generation Facilities—Rules on Design and Construction for Nuclear Power Plants,” The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, Standard No. JSME S NC1-2005.
JEA, 2009, “Technical Code for Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants,” Japan Electric Association, Tokyo, Japan, Standard No. JEAC4601-2008.
JEA, 1987, “Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants,” Japan Electric Association, Tokyo, Japan, Standard No. JEAG4601-1987. https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/contract/cr6241/
Hasegawa, K. , Miyazaki, K. , and Nakamura, I. , 2008, “ Failure Mode and Failure Strength for Wall Thinning Straight Pipes and Elbows Subjected to Seismic Loading,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 130(1), p. 011404. [CrossRef]
Hinnant, C. , and Paulin, T. , 2008, “Experimental Evaluation of the Markle Fatigue Methods and ASME Piping Stress Intensification Factors,” ASME Paper No. PVP2008-61871.
Nakamura, I. , Otani, A. , and Shiratori, M. , 2013, “Damage Process Compared to the Design Standard of the Elbow Subjected to In-Plane Cyclic Bending Load,” ASME Paper No. PVP2013-97834.
Kasahara, N. , Nakamura, I. , Machida, H. , Nakamura, H. , and Okamoto, K. , 2015, “Identification of Failure Modes Under Design Extension Conditions,” ASME Paper No. PVP2015-45381.
Nakamura, I. , Demachi, K. , and Kasahara, N. , 2015, “An Experimental Investigation on Failure Modes of Piping Components Under Excessive Seismic Load,” Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMiRT23), Manchester, UK, Aug. 10–14, Paper No. 437. https://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/bitstream/handle/1840.20/34021/SMiRT-23_Paper_437.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Nakamura, I. , and Kasahara, N. , 2016, “Trial Model Tests With Simulation Material to Obtain Failure Modes of Pipes Under Excessive Seismic Loads,” ASME Paper No. PVP2016-63422.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Configuration of the test specimen: (a) dimensions of the test specimen and (b) test setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Input sinusoidal waves used in the excitation tests: (a) SW#1 and (b) SW#3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Outline of the measurement in the pipe-component test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Transfer function of SLE01 by the wide-band random input

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Relation between input frequencies and amplification ratio under 1.5 m/s2 sinusoidal input (SLE01)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Transfer function of SLE05 by the wide-band random input and sinusoidal sweep excitations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Relation between maximum input acceleration and amplification ratio under the sinusoidal wave input

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Load–deflection curve of SLE02 and SLE05: (a) SLE02, 0.2 m/s2 input (wide-band random), (b) SLE02, 1.5 m/s2 input, (c) SLE02, 5 m/s2 input, and (d) SLE05, 9 m/s2 input

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Relation between the maximum input acceleration and maximum response acceleration and displacement at the weight (sinusoidal wave input): (a) input acc.–response acc. and (b) input acc.–response disp.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Typical failure mode obtained in the pipe-component tests (SLE02): (a) fatigue crack at the flank of the elbow and (b) penetration check test result

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

An example of the strain time histories at the flank of the elbow (SLE02, 5 m/s2_#01)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Cumulative strains through the excitation tests for SLE02, SLE03S, and SLE04: (a) SLE02, (b) SLE03S, (c) SLE04, and (d) location of strain measurement on the elbow section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Schematic illustration of process to obtain the fictitious elastic load, Lf [17]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Design fatigue curve [14] and the experimental results: (a) carbon steel pipe and (b) austenitic stainless steel pipe



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In