Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Cooling Time (t8/5) Model for Submerged Arc Welded Pressure Vessel Steel Using Dimensional Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Harish Kumar Arya

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering
and Technology,
Longowal 148106, India
e-mail: arya.iitr@gmail.com

Kulwant Singh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering
and Technology,
Longowal 148106, India
e-mail: engrkulwant@yahoo.co.in

R. K. Saxena

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering
and Technology,
Longowal 148106, India
e-mail: rksaxena.04@gmail.com

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 6, 2017; final manuscript received September 5, 2017; published online October 19, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Steve J. Hensel.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 139(6), 061404 (Oct 19, 2017) (6 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1080; doi: 10.1115/1.4038018 History: Received May 06, 2017; Revised September 05, 2017

Most of the microstructural changes in weldment takes place during weld cooling from 800 ° C to 500 ° C (t8/5) specially in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Weld strength and cracking tendency can also relate to t8/5. A generalized model using dimensional analysis has been proposed for estimation of the weld cooling time (t8/5) for variable plate thicknesses. The proposed model is based on rotatable central composite designed submerged arc welding (SAW) experiments. The model considers material properties, weld parameters, and environmental conditions for submerged arc welding. The model is validated with experimental data and cooling time observed by other researchers. The adequacy of the model was found to be 97% and able to predict cooling time for a plate thickness ranging from 8 to 41.5 mm thickness.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Cary, H. B. , 1998, Modern Arc Welding Technology, 4th ed, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Arora, A. , Roy, G. G. , and DebRoy, T. , 2010, “ Cooling Rate in 800 to 500 °C Range From Dimensional Analysis,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining, 15(5), pp. 423–427. [CrossRef]
Ashbay, M. F. , and Easterling, K. E. , 1982, “ A First Report on Diagrams for Grain Growth in Weld,” Acta Metall., 30(11), pp. 1969–1978.
Graville, B. A. , 1973, “ Weld Cooling Rates and Heat Affected Zone Hardness in Carbon Steel,” Weld. Res., 54(9), pp. 377s–385s. https://app.aws.org/wj/supplement/WJ_1973_09_s377.pdf
Shehata, F. , 1994, “ Effect of Plate Thickness on Mechanical Properties of Steel Arc Welded Joints,” Mater. Des., 15(2), pp. 105–110. [CrossRef]
Kou, S. , 2003, Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Lancaster, J. F. , 2013, Metallurgy of Welding, Vol. 53, Woodhead Publishing, Sawston, UK. [PubMed] [PubMed]
Rosenthal, D. , 1941, “ Mathematical Theory of Heat Distribution During Welding and Cutting,” Weld. J., 20(5), pp. 220–225.
Poorhaydari, K. , Patchett, B. M. , and Ivey, D. G. , 2005, “ Estimation of Cooling Rate in the Welding of Plates With Intermediate Thickness,” Weld. J., 84(10), pp. 149–155. http://files.aws.org/wj/supplement/10-2005-POORHAYDARI-s.pdf
Chandel, R. S. , and Bala, S. R. , 1985, “ Cooling Time and Features of Submerged Arc Weld Beads,” Weld. J., 64(7), pp. 201s–208s. http://files.aws.org/wj/supplement/WJ_1985_07_s201.pdf
Shen, S. , Oguocha, I. N. A. , and Yannacopoulos, S. , 2012, “ Effect of Heat Input on Weld Bead Geometry of Submerged Arc Welded ASTM A709 Grade 50 Steel Joints,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 212(1), pp. 286–294. [CrossRef]
Kulhanek, J. , Tomcik, P. , Trojan, R. , Juranek, M. , and Klaus, P. , 2016, “ Experimental Modeling of Weld Thermal Cycle of the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ),” Metalurgija, 55(4), pp. 733–736. https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0ahUKEwjB6sj-n9TWAhUL7CYKHUF5CeQQFggqMAA&url=https%3A%2F%2Fhrcak.srce.hr%2Ffile%2F232023&usg=AOvVaw0hFQdrj9H0HPDLq-IFCW5b
Attarha, M. J. , and Sattari-Far, I. , 2011, “ Study on Welding Temperature Distribution in Thin Welded Plates Through Experimental Measurements and Finite Element Simulation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(4), pp. 688–694. [CrossRef]
Montgomery, D. C. , 2008, Design and Analysis of Experiments, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Nart, E. , and Celik, Y. , 2013, “ A Practical Approach for Simulating Submerged Arc Welding Process Using FE Method,” J. Constr. Steel Res., 84, pp. 62–71. [CrossRef]
Arya, H. , and Singh, K. , 2015, “ Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding,” 17th International Conference on Robotics and Mechanical Engineering (ICRME), Paris, France, Aug. 27–28, pp. 2482–2486. https://www.waset.org/abstracts/33595
Li, C. , and Wang, Y. , 2013, “ Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stress Distributions for In-Service Welding Process,” Mater. Des., 52, pp. 1052–1057. [CrossRef]
Mendez, P. F. , 2005, “ Scaling Laws in Welding Modeling,” International Conference: Trends in Welding Research, Pine Mountain, GA, May 16–20, pp. 103–108. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241912303_Scaling_Laws_in_Welding_Modeling


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Submerged arc welding machine (Adore Tornado 800) along with temperature measurement system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Thermocouple insertion method for temperature measurement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Welding fixture for thermocouple insertion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Time–temperature graph observed during welding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of experimental and predicted cooling time for SAW

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Validation of proposed model by Chandel experimental data



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In