Research Papers: Fluid-Structure Interaction

Measurement of the Excitation Source of an Axisymmetric Shallow Cavity Shear Layer

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Mohamed

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
e-mail: tahasr@mcmaster.ca

H. R. Graf

Winterthur 8400, Switzerland
e-mail: hansrudolfgraf@bluewin.ch

S. Ziada

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
e-mail: ziadas@mcmaster.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 16, 2017; final manuscript received March 20, 2018; published online April 25, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Tomomichi Nakamura.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(3), 031304 (Apr 25, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1233; doi: 10.1115/1.4039781 History: Received November 16, 2017; Revised March 20, 2018

The interaction of a cavity shear layer with the sound field of an acoustic mode can generate an aeroacoustic source which is capable of initiating and sustaining acoustic resonances in the duct housing the cavity. This aeroacoustic source is determined experimentally for an internal axisymmetric cavity exposed to high Reynolds number, fully developed turbulent pipe flow without the need to resolve the details of neither the unsteady flow field nor the flow-sound interaction process at the cavity. The experimental technique, referred to here as the standing wave method (SWM), employs six microphones distributed upstream and downstream of the cavity to evaluate the fluctuating pressure difference generated by the oscillating cavity shear layer in the presence of an externally imposed sound wave. The results of the aeroacoustic source are in good agreement with the concepts of free shear layer instability and the fluid-resonant oscillation behavior. The accuracy of the measurement technique is evaluated by means of sensitivity tests. In addition, the measured source is used to predict the self-excited acoustic resonance of a shallow cavity in a pipeline. Comparison of the predicted and measured results shows excellent prediction of the self-excited acoustic resonance, including the resonance frequency, the lock-in velocity range, and the amplitude of the self-generated acoustic resonance.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Test setup used for the SWM and normalized acoustic pressure distribution of the resonance mode. Red color stands for positive acoustic pressure and blue color for negative acoustic pressure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow-structure-sound interaction in a piping system containing a cavity. U is the mean flow velocity vector and υ¯ is the acoustic particle velocity vector of the standing wave. The dashed line represents the acoustic pressure of a standing wave in the pipe.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Facility to generate self-excited acoustic resonances. Zi and Zo are the complex radiation impedances at the entrance and exit of the main pipe, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Pipeline system response to forced random acoustic excitations; the imaginary components of the acoustic pressure at the cavity center versus the excitation frequency. Note: the resonance frequency occurs at a pure real acoustic pressure (zero imaginary components).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

An example of the analysis of one measurement showing all the measured and computed acoustic pressures and volume velocities at the cavity center

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Residual in the acoustic volume velocity at the cavity midspan which describes the ratio of the difference in acoustic volume velocity at the cavity midspan, calculated from both sides of the cavity, to the mean value of the acoustic volume velocity at this location

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The complex pressure difference Δp at υ/U= 5% (----) and υ/U = 1% (·····). The filled data points represent the indicated values of Strouhal number.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The complex source term, S, at υ/U= 5% (----) and υ/U = 1% (- - - -). The filled data points represent the indicated values of Strouhal number with a step 0.1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Real part of the aeroacoustic source as a function of acoustic particle velocity, υ/U, at the cavity center for different values of Strouhal number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Real part of the aeroacoustic source as a function of Strouhal number, St, for different values of acoustic particle velocity, υ/U

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Validation of the measured source term by comparing the measured self-excited frequencies and lock-in range with those predicted by the source term

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Validation of the measured source term by comparing the measured self-excited amplitude of the first acoustic mode and the model predictions



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