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Research Papers: Pipeline Systems

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements of Aeroacoustic Sources of a Shallow Cavity in a Pipeline

[+] Author and Article Information
S. Mohamed

Mechanical Department,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
e-mail: tahasr@mcmaster.ca

S. Ziada

Professor
Mechanical Department,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
e-mail: ziadas@mcmaster.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 29, 2017; final manuscript received April 2, 2018; published online May 21, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Tomomichi Nakamura.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 140(4), 041702 (May 21, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: PVT-17-1241; doi: 10.1115/1.4039920 History: Received November 29, 2017; Revised April 02, 2018

The aeroacoustic sources generated by flow over a ducted shallow cavity in the presence of a longitudinal plane sound wave are examined at various Strouhal numbers and sound intensities. The cavity is exposed to high Reynolds number fully developed pipe flow. Extensive particle image velocimetry (PIV) flow measurements are performed to characterize the unsteady velocity field and finite element analysis is used to obtain the acoustic velocity field. Howe's aeroacoustic integrand is then used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of the aeroacoustic sources resulting from the cavity shear layer interaction with the sound field. The results show two aeroacoustic sources separated by a sink along the cavity shear layer. This distribution is different from that reported for the closed side-branch resonance case, which shows a single source at the downstream corner and a sink at the upstream corner of the cavity. The effect of the upstream corner geometry in the present case is, therefore, expected to be different from the case of side-branch resonance. The time-averaged sound power distribution is computed and the total sound power per cycle is compared with the aeroacoustic source strength measured by means of the standing wave method (SWM) (Mohamed, S., Graf, H. R., and Ziada, S., 2011, “Aeroacoustic Source of a Shallow Cavity in a Pipeline,” ASME Paper No. PVP2011-57437). The merits of these two methods in determining the aeroacoustic sources are highlighted.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flow-structure-sound interaction in a cavity [1]

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Fig. 2

Particle image velocimetry Test setup. Cavity dimensions: L = 52 mm, H = 26 mm and D = 95 mm.

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Fig. 3

Schematic presentation of the square cavity, laser and camera arrangement

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Fig. 4

Instantaneous flow fields at eight different time instants within the acoustic cycle from the PIV measurements. The background is the vorticity field and the arrows show the velocity vectors. Strouhal number is 0.65 and excitation level υ/U = 5%.

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Fig. 5

Finite element simulation of the acoustic field of the piping system housing the cavity: (a) simulation grid; (b) p(x,y) for the first acoustic harmonic mode; and (c) close-up image of p(x,y) combined with the streamlines of the acoustic particle velocity at the cavity study plane

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Fig. 6

Howe's integrand method to extract the aeroacoustic source resulting from flow-sound interaction

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Fig. 7

Effect of Strouhal number on the flow-sound interaction process at a constant excitation level υ/U = 5%. Top row: snapshot of flow field; middle row: spatial distribution of net aeroacoustic power; bottom figure: normalized source term. Data point (C) corresponds to flow velocity at the peak resonance condition (U = Upeak); data point (A) is at a higher flow velocity (U > Upeak); and data point (E) is at a lower flow velocity (U < Upeak).

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Fig. 8

Effect of excitation level (υ/U) on the flow-sound interaction process at a constant Strouhal number (St = 0.65). Top row: snapshot of flow field; middle row: spatial distribution of net aeroacoustic power; bottom figure: normalized source term.

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Fig. 9

Effect of excitation level (υ/U) on the aeroacoustic power at a constant Strouhal number (St = 0.65)

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